From Ancient Greek κάκιστος (kákistos, “worst”), superlative of κακός (kakós, “bad”) + -κρατία (-kratía, “power, rule, government”). The word was coined by the English author Thomas Love Peacock (1785–1866) in his 1829 novella The Misfortunes of Elphin as the opposite of aristocracy (see the quotation).
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /kakɪsˈtɒkɹəsɪ/, /kakɪˈstɒ-/
- (General American) IPA(key): /kækɪsˈtɑkɹəsi/, /kækɪˈstɑ-/
- Hyphenation: ka‧kis‧to‧cra‧cy
kakistocracy (plural kakistocracies)
- Government under the control of a nation's worst or least-qualified citizens. [from 1829.]
1829, [Thomas Love Peacock], “The Education of Taliesin”, in The Misfortunes of Elphin, London: Published by Thomas Hookham, Old Bond Street, OCLC 82094960, pages 92–93:
- The people lived in darkness and vassalage. […] they were utterly destitute of the blessing of those "schools for all," the house of correction, and the treadmill, wherein the autochthonal justice of our agrestic kakistocracy now castigates the heinous sins which were then committed with impunity, […]
1876 January 19, James Russell Lowell, “To Joel Benton”, in Charles Eliot Norton, editor, Letters of James Russell Lowell, volume II, part I, New York, N.Y.: Harper & Brothers, publishers, published 1894, OCLC 279682, page 159:
- Is ours a "government of the people, by the people, for the people," or a Kakistocracy rather, for the benefit of knaves at the cost of fools?
1999, Gang Deng, “Trinary Structure: Origin, Tension and Equilibrium”, in The Premodern Chinese Economy: Structural Equilibrium and Capitalist Sterility (Routledge Explorations in Economic History), London; New York, N.Y.: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-16239-5, page 159:
- Thus, the problem was not whether corruption/power abuse was allowed, but how to keep a balance between uprightness and kakistocracy.
2000, Tom H. Hastings, Ecology of War & Peace: Counting the Cost of Conflict, Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, ISBN 978-0-7618-1788-8, page 101:
- Some nation-states have suffered what the Greeks called kakistocracy—government by the worst of men. International law can, in theory if not always in practice, keep these kakistocracies from damaging too much.
2016 November 18, Jamelle Bouie, “Government by the worst men”, in Slate, archived from the original on 23 January 2017:
- As we step into this world—as we enter the age of kakistocracy—we should remember one thing. This isn’t a departure from [Donald] Trump's populism. It's the foundation of it. This is what Trump campaigned on.
- kakistocracy on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
- Amro Ali (9 May 2016), “Kakistocracy: A Word We Need to Revive”, in Amro Ali: Writing on Egypt, Middle East and Other Peaceful Places, archived from the original on 16 January 2017.
- Rick Finkelstein (25 May 2011), “Kakistocracy… A Word You Should Know”, in The Huffington Post, archived from the original on 2 January 2017.
- “Kakistocracy”, in Michael Quinion, World Wide Words, 1 December 2007.