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- The traditional legal system of Somalia, believed to predate Islam, in which elders serve as mediators and people are responsible for the actions of their families.
- 1977, David D Laitin, Politics, language, and thought: the Somali experience:
- It arranges for settlement of collective debts, discusses xeer dealings with central authorities, maintains the group wells, and protects grazing areas.
- 2005, Walter Dostal, Wolfgang Kraus, Shattering tradition: custom, law and the individual in the Muslim Mediterranean
- In rural areas, there is still confusion between xeer and shari'a.
- 2007, Lars Buur, Helene Maria Kyed, State recognition and democratization in Sub-Saharan Africa
- The key feature of the xeer is its common law character...