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(index yh)

Finnish cardinal numbers
 <  8 9 10  > 
    Cardinal : yhdeksän
    Ordinal : yhdeksäs
    Adverbial : yhdeksästi
    Multiplier : yhdeksänkertainen
    Colloquial counting form : ysi
    Colloquial ordinal : ykki
Finnish Wikipedia article on yhdeksän


From Proto-Finnic *ükteksä. The initial component is yksi (one), but the nature of the latter component (shared with kahdeksan (eight)) remains disputed. The most common explanation is that it consists of two parts: *e-, the negative verb (ei), and *-ksä, a reflexive verb ending (compare Kalevala forms such as istuikse = istuutuu (he/she sits (down))). The combination would then mean "one is not there", and "of ten" was implied or originally said.

The original nominative yhdeksä was replaced by the genitive form due to seitsen and kymmen (and possibly kahdeksan) ending in -n (which is also the genitive ending), but is attested in older texts, particularly in compounds.


  • IPA(key): /ˈyhdeksæn/, [ˈyçde̞ks̠æn]
  • Rhymes: -yhdeksæn
  • Syllabification: yh‧dek‧sän



  1. nine

Usage notes[edit]


Declension is the same as type koira (number 10), except of the nominative singular form (*), where an -n is added at the end.

Coordinate terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]