Appendix:Finnish numbers

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Composing numbers larger than 10[edit]

The cardinal numbers from 11 to 19 are composed with suffix -toista (-teen): yksitoista, kaksitoista...

The cardinal numbers from 20 to 99 are composed by the following pattern:

  • (kaksi—yhdeksän) + kymmentä + (yksi—yhdeksän)
    • kolme|kymmentä|seitsemän = thirty-seven

Hundreds are simply added to the same set, one hundred in nominative and the hundreds of two hundred—nine hundred in partitive:

  • (100—199) sata (nom.) + kymmenen—yhdeksäntoista / kaksikymmentä—yhdeksänkymmentä + yksi—yhdeksän
    • sata|kuusikymmentä|viisi = one hundred and sixty-five
  • (200—999) kaksi—yhdeksän + sataa + kymmenen—yhdeksäntoista / kaksikymmentä—yhdeksänkymmentä + yksi—yhdeksän
    • kuusisataa (part.) seitsemänkymmentäneljä = six hundred and seventy-four

Writing conventions[edit]

When written in numeric form, the cardinal numbers are divided in "groups of three" with spaces: 3,000,000,000 -> 3 000 000 000. When writing decimal numbers, the roles of dot and comma are reversed in comparison with English: 1,000.31 -> 1.000,31. Thus, instead of a decimal point there is desimaalipilkku (decimal comma).

When writing a cardinal number out as text, each "group of three" is written together as one word, separated with space from the potences of ten (tuhatta, miljoonaa, miljardia...):

  • 300 700 400 283 -> kolmesataa miljardia seitsemänsataa miljoonaa neljäsataa tuhatta kaksisataakahdeksankymmentäkolme

Declension[edit]

The cardinal numbers may be inflected in all cases, singular and plural. When a cardinal number is used attributively to express the quantity of specific objects, the main word and the corresponding verb are in singular:

  • Kaksi ihmistä seisoo bussipysäkillä.
    • Two people are standing at the bus stop.

Note that with a numeral in nominative, the main word is in partitive. In other cases, the cardinal number and the word it defines are congruent:

  • kolmea ihmis = three people (object)
  • kuudessa ihmisessä = in six people
  • yhdeksälle ihmiselle = to nine people

The plural forms are used mainly with words that are used only in plural:

All the declinable parts of a number are in the same case:

  • (inessive) kolmessa miljoonassa neljässäsadassakuudessakymmenessäneljässä tuhannessa yhdeksässäsadassakuudessatoista
    • in three million four hundred and sixty-four thousand nine hundred and sixteen

When the number is written in numeric form the case suffix of the last declinable part is added to the number with a colon:

  • 3 464 916:ssa-ssa from -kuudessatoista
    • in 3,464,916

Usage notes[edit]

Inexact quantities[edit]

Inexact quantities may always be expressed with the adverb noin (about). The numbers 3 through 10 have have also a specific inexact form which is formed with suffix -sen: kolmisen, nelisen, viitisen, kuutisen, seitsemisen, kahdeksisen, yhdeksisen, kymmenisen. They may be combined with -toista, kymmentä, sataa etc. for larger quantities, e.g. viitisen miljoonaa (~5,000,000). The corresponding form for kaksi is parisen. It behaves otherwise similarly, but cannot be combined with -toista.

Number of repetitions[edit]

Number of repetitions may always be expressed with kertaa (times). The numbers 2 through 10 plus 100, 1.000 and 1.000.000 have also a specific repetitive form which is formed with suffix -sti: kahdesti, kolmasti, neljästi, viidesti, kuudesti, seitsemästi, kahdeksasti, yhdeksästi, kymmenesti, sadasti, tuhannesti, miljoonasti. They may be combined with -toista, kymmentä, sataa etc. for larger quantities, e.g. viitisen miljoonaa (~5,000,000). The corresponding form for kaksi is parisen. It behaves otherwise similarly, but cannot be combined with -toista.

Number of people present[edit]

Numbers 2 through 6 have adverbial forms which express how many people are present or acting in unison: kaksin/kahdestaan, kolmisin/kolmistaan, neljästään/nelistään, viidestään, kuudestaan.