土竜

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土竜 (mogura, moguramochi, mugura, muguramochi, uguramochi, uguromochi, ugoromochi, doryū): a mole.

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: S
Irregular

A surface analysis suggests a derivation from the verb 潜る (moguru, to go underneath or into something, such as water or the ground).

However, the modern mogura reading appears to be relatively recent. The older form of this noun was variously ugoromochi, uguromochi, or uguramochi, deriving from now-obsolete verb 墳つ (ugumotsu, uguromotsu, ugomotsu, ugoromotsu, to become a pile or small hill, as of soil). This verb itself appears to be a compound deriving from obsolete 穿ぐ (ugu, to dig a hole, a 下二段 (shimo nidan) or “lower bigrade” conjugation verb) + 持つ (motsu, to have in hand; to carry, to bring), with an underlying idea of “that which digs and brings up the dirt [to form a molehill]”. The verb ugu had a 連体形 (rentaikei, attributive form) of uguru, attaching only to nouns, suggesting that the original parsing of this might have been “digging bringer”.

The shift in sound from uguru to the variants uguro and ugoro may be a reflection of the morpheme -ro that appears in numerous words indicating a hollow interior. Compare 空ろ (utsuro, a hollow, an emptiness), (muro, a room; an excavated dwelling on the side of a mountain), (fukuro, a bag), possibly even (tokoro, a place). The ugoromochi reading appears in the 本草和名 (Honzō Wamyō), a pharmacopoeia compiled some time in the years 901-923.

The uguramochi variant was either dialectal, or a later development.

With the beginning of the Edo period and the shift in the political and cultural center to Edo, uguramochi was superseded by the eastern dialectal form muguramochi. The 1603 日葡辞書 (Nippo Jisho, Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary) lists one variant as mugura, indicating that the mochi portion could be dropped. This mugura then became mogura, possibly influenced by the verb 潜る (moguru).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)
  • (Tokyo) ぐら [mògúrá] (Heiban - [0])[1]
  • IPA(key): [mo̞ɡ̃ɯᵝɾ̠a̠]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

土竜 (shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji 土龍, hiragana もぐら, katakana モグラ, romaji mogura)

  1. (animal): a mole
Usage notes[edit]

Given the irregularity of the kanji reading, the もぐら spelling may be more common for this word in general use.

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana in biological contexts, as モグラ.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: S
Irregular

Likely a shift in pronunciation from earlier eastern dialectal form muguramochi, possibly influenced by the verb 潜る (moguru).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)
  • (Tokyo) ぐらもち [mògúráꜜmòchì] (Nakadaka - [3])[1]
  • IPA(key): [mo̞ɡ̃ɯᵝɾ̠a̠mo̞t͡ɕi]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

土竜 (hiragana もぐらもち, romaji moguramochi)

  1. (animal): a mole
Usage notes[edit]

The もぐら reading further above is more common for this word.

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: S
Irregular

Shortening of earlier eastern dialectal form muguramochi.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)
  • IPA(key): [mɯᵝɡ̃ɯᵝɾ̠a̠]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

土竜 (hiragana むぐら, romaji mugura)

  1. (animal, rare, possibly obsolete): a mole
Usage notes[edit]

The もぐら reading further above is more common for this word.

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: S
Irregular

Eastern dialectal form of earlier uguramochi reading. Appears in the 日葡辞書 (Nippo Jisho, Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary) published in 1603.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)
  • IPA(key): [mɯᵝɡ̃ɯᵝɾ̠a̠mo̞t͡ɕi]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

土竜 (hiragana むぐらもち, romaji muguramochi)

  1. (animal, rare, possibly obsolete): a mole

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: S
Irregular

Older western Japanese dialectal reading. Also appears with this reading in the 日葡辞書 (Nippo Jisho, Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary) published in 1603.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)
  • IPA(key): [ɯᵝɡ̃ɯᵝɾ̠a̠mo̞t͡ɕi]

Noun[edit]

土竜 (hiragana うぐらもち, romaji uguramochi)

  1. (animal, rare, possibly obsolete): a mole

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: S
Irregular

Variant of older western Japanese dialectal reading. Appears with this reading in the 玉葉和歌集 (Gyokuyō Wakashū, “Collection of Jeweled Leaves”) poetry compilation, completed in 1313-1314.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)
  • IPA(key): [ɯᵝɡ̃ɯᵝɺ̠o̞mo̞t͡ɕi]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

土竜 (hiragana うぐろもち, romaji uguromochi)

  1. (animal, rare, possibly obsolete): a mole

Etymology 7[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: S
Irregular

May be the oldest form. Appears with this reading in the 本草和名 (Honzō Wamyō), a pharmacopoeia compiled some time in the years 901-923.[1]

Derived as the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 墳つ (ugumotsu, uguromotsu, ugomotsu, ugoromotsu, to become a pile or small hill, as of soil). See above for further details.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)
  • IPA(key): [ɯᵝɡ̃o̞ɺ̠o̞mo̞t͡ɕi]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

土竜 (hiragana うごろもち, romaji ugoromochi)

  1. (animal, obsolete): a mole

Etymology 8[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
りゅう
Grade: S
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese compound 土龍 (thuX ljowng, literally earth + dragon). Compare modern Mandarin reading tǔlóng.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

土竜 (hiragana どりゅう, romaji doryū)

  1. (animal, rare): a mole
  2. (rare): an earthworm
  3. (metaphor): an outstanding horse, an excellent horse, a famous horse (by metaphor from the meaning of the kanji)
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  • 1796 [901-923], 深根 輔仁 (Fukane Sukehito) editor, 本草和名 (Honzō Wamyō, “Japanese Names of the Real Herbs”) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: 紅葉山文庫 (Momiji Yama Bunko, “Autumn Leaves Mountain Books”):
  • 1980 [1603–1604], Tadao Doi, Hōyaku Nippo Jisho (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4-0008-0021-3: