竜馬

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

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竜馬 (ryūme, ryūma): A shogi piece representing a promoted bishop.
Kanji in this term
りゅう
Grade: S

Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese 龍馬 (ljowng mæX, literally dragon + horse). The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

竜馬 (shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji 龍馬, hiragana りゅうめ, romaji ryūme)

  1. (idiomatic) an excellent horse, a very fast horse
  2. (shogi) a promoted bishop
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
りゅう
Grade: S

Grade: 2
on'yomi

Alteration of ryūme above, using the kan'yōon reading of ma for the character.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

竜馬 (shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji 龍馬, hiragana りゅうま, romaji ryūma)

  1. (shogi) a promoted bishop
Usage notes[edit]

The ryūma reading is common, but might be considered by some to be less technically correct than the ryūme reading.[1]

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
りょう
Grade: S

Grade: 2
on'yomi

Shift in pronunciation ryūme above. The kan'on for both characters, so probably a re-borrowing from a later stage of Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

竜馬 (shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji 龍馬, hiragana りょうば, romaji ryōba)

  1. (idiomatic) an excellent horse, a very fast horse
Usage notes[edit]

This is a homophone with the synonymous spelling 良馬 (ryōba, literally good horse).

Synonyms[edit]


Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
りょう
Grade: S

Grade: 2
on'yomi

Alteration of ryūme above, using the kan'on reading of ryō for the character.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

竜馬 (shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji 龍馬, hiragana りょうめ, romaji ryōme)

  1. (idiomatic) an excellent horse, a very fast horse
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
りょう
Grade: S

Grade: 2
on'yomi

Probably an alteration of ryōba above, using the kan'yōon reading of ma for the character.

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

竜馬 (shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji 龍馬, hiragana りょうま, romaji Ryōma)

  1. A surname​.

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
たつ
Grade: S
うま
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Compound of (tatsu, dragon) +‎ (no, possessive particle) +‎ (uma, horse).[3][2] The no is implied in this spelling.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

竜馬 (shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai kanji 龍馬, hiragana たつのうま, romaji tatsu no uma)

  1. (idiomatic) an excellent horse, a very fast horse
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem #808), text here
      多都乃麻乎 阿礼波毛等米牟
      たつのまを あれはもとめむ
      Tatsu no ma o / are wa motomemu
      “I would want a dragon horse...”
      (Note that the ancient form of uma was sometimes rendered as ma or muma. See the etymology at for more details.)
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan