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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 86 +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 尸一火 (SMF), composition)

  1. spirit, soul
  2. spiritual world

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 666, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18868
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1075, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2190, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+7075

Chinese[edit]

simpl.
trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (灵), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 來 (37)
Final: 青
Division: IV

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 郎丁切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/leŋ/ /lieŋ/ /leŋ/ /leŋ/ /lɛjŋ/ /lieŋ/ /lɛŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
líng ‹ leng › /*[r]ˤeŋ/ supernatural

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
8237 0 /*reːŋ/

Compounds[edit]