rūgts

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the same stem as the verb rūgt (to ferment, to turn sour, bitter), of which it is technically the past participle. Cognates include Lithuanian rūgštùs (sour); cf. also 17th-century Latvian rūksts (bitter, sour and bitter) (= *rūgsts).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

rūgts (def. rūgtais, comp. rūgtāks, sup. visrūgtākais; adv. rūgti)

  1. bittered; indefinite past passive participle of rūgt 
  2. bitter (having the acrid taste typical of, e.g., gall, or wormwood)
    rūgtas zāles, ogasbitter herbs, berries
    saldeni rūgts dzēriensbittersweet drink
    rūgta garšabitter taste
    rūgta kafija, tējabitter coffee, tea (i.e., without sugar)
    rūgtā ķērsabitter cherry (a different species)
    rūgtās mandelesbitter alomnds (a different species)
    ēst vairs nemaz negribējās, kāposti likās rūgti — one didn't feel at all like eating anymore, the cabbage seemed bitter
    viss, ko mēs ēdām un dzērām, bija rūgts kā žults — everything that we ate and drank was as bitter as gall
  3. (of smells) bitter (having the smell typical of, e.g., wormwood)
    rūgta smarža, smakabitter smell
    rūgti ziedibitter flowers
    rūgta ogļu dvingabitter (char)coal fumes
    dūmi bija nežēlīgi rūgti un saka kost acīs un kaklā — the smoke was cruelly bitter and started biting in the eyes and neck
  4. (figuratively) bitter (which causes or is associated with painful experience, suffering, hardship; expressing such feelings, associations)
    rūgta dzīvebitter life
    rūgti maldibitter delusion
    rūgtas ciešanasbitter suffering
    rūgta mācībabitter lesson
    rūgts pārbaudījumsbitter test, ordeal
    rūgta atziņabitter realization
    rūgta balssbitter voice
    rūgts pārmetumsbitter reprimand, accusation
    nu nāca rūgtas dienas — well, the bitter days have come
    patiesība, kaut arī rūgta, vienmēr labāka par ilūzijām — the truth, though bitter, is always better than illusions
    viņas smalkie vaibsti, viegli pārklāti ar maigu saules bronzu, stāstīja par rūgtu vilšanos — her delicate features, lightly covered by the soft bronze of the sun, told about bitter disappointment

Declension[edit]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ “rūgts” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.