bitter

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English[edit]

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Etymology[edit]

From Middle English, from Old English biter, bitter, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz. Compare West Frisian bitter, Dutch bitter, Low German bitter, German bitter, Icelandic bitur.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter (comparative bitterer or more bitter, superlative bitterest or most bitter)

  1. Having an acrid taste (usually from a basic substance)
    The coffee tasted bitter.
    • 1907, Robert Chambers, chapter 3, The Younger Set[1]:
      Long after his cigar burnt bitter, he sat with eyes fixed on the blaze. When the flames at last began to flicker and subside, his lids fluttered, then drooped ; … .
  2. Harsh, piercing or stinging
    A bitter wind blew from the north.
    1999: It was at the end of February, ... when the world was cold, and a bitter wind howled down the moors.... — Neil Gaiman, Stardust, pg. 31 (Perennial paperback edition)
  3. Hateful or hostile.
    They're bitter enemies.
    • Bible, Col. iii. 19
      Husbands, love your wives, and be not bitter against them.
  4. Cynical and resentful.
    I've been bitter ever since that defeat.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The one-word comparative form bitterer and superlative form bitterest exist, but are less common than their two-word counterparts more bitter and most bitter.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

  • (cynical and resentful): jaded

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Noun[edit]

bitter (plural bitters)

  1. (usually in the plural bitters) A liquid or powder, made from bitter herbs, used in mixed drinks or as a tonic.
    • 1773, Oliver Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer
      Thus I begin: "All is not gold that glitters,
      "Pleasure seems sweet, but proves a glass of bitters.
  2. A type of beer heavily flavored with hops.
  3. (nautical) A turn of a cable about the bitts.

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Verb[edit]

bitter (third-person singular simple present bitters, present participle bittering, simple past and past participle bittered)

  1. To make bitter.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Wolcott to this entry?)

Danish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Low German bitter.

Adjective[edit]

bitter (neuter bittert, definite and plural bitre, comparative bitrere, superlative bitrest)

  1. bitter (all meanings)
Related terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

bitter c (singular definite bitteren, plural indefinite bittere)

  1. bitter (the liquid used in drinks)
  2. A bitter form of an aquavit
Inflection[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From English bitter.

Noun[edit]

bitter c

  1. bitter (type of beer - only known generally in Denmark for a few years)

Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch bitter, from Old Dutch *bittar, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz. Compare Low German bitter, German bitter, West Frisian bitter, English bitter, Icelandic bitur.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter (comparative bitterder, superlative bitterst)

  1. bitter (having an acrid taste)

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German bittar, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz. Compare Low German bitter, Dutch bitter, English bitter, Swedish bitter, Icelandic bitur.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter (comparative bitterer, superlative am bittersten)

  1. bitter

Derived terms[edit]

Declension[edit]

External links[edit]


Italian[edit]

Noun[edit]

bitter m (invariable)

  1. bitters

Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch bitter, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter

  1. bitter (taste)
  2. sad, painful

Descendants[edit]


Old English[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter

  1. Alternative form of biter.

Old High German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter

  1. Alternative form of bittar.

References[edit]

  • Joseph Wright, An Old High German Primer

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse bitr (partly through the influence of Middle Low German bitter), from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bitter

  1. bitter; having an acrid taste
  2. bitter; hateful
  3. bitter; resentful