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Alternative forms[edit]



đã (, , )

  1. (before verb, usually formal) A past-tense marker: already; done
  2. (at the end of a sentence) Reinforces completion: first
    Đi chơi đi!
    Đợi tớ rửa bát xong đã.
    Let's go out!
    Let me finish washing the dishes first.

Usage notes[edit]

  • In most natural contexts, đã is formal. A Vietnamese would formally say "Anh ấy đã chết trong chiến tranh" ("He died in the war"), but not casually say *"Cháu đã ăn cơm" ("I had a meal") or *"Hôm qua tao đã thấy nó ở đường Yersin" ("I saw him yesterday on Yersin Street"). Instead, they would say "Cháu ăn cơm rồi" and "Hôm qua tao thấy nó ở đường Yersin".
  • Otherwise, it is used artificially in common awkward translation work; or casually in very few patterns only for emphasis, and in these cases, it can be considered equivalent to the use of the English present perfect tense. For example:
    • Con đã ăn cơm chưa?
      Have you eaten yet?
    • Mày có biết bờ biển Nha Trang đẹp thế nào hông? ・ Tao đã đi Nha Trang bao giờ đâu mà biết!
      Do you have any idea how beautiful the Nha Trang beaches are? ・ How am I supposed to know? I've never been to Nha Trang!

See also[edit]



  1. (colloquial) satisfied; pleasurable; refreshing; cool