خوش

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See also: خوس, جوش, and حوش

Arabic[edit]

Verb[edit]

خَوَّشَ (ḵawwaša) II, non-past يُخَوِّشُ‎ (yuḵawwišu)

  1. to countersink
  2. to ream

Conjugation[edit]

Gulf Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Persian خوش (xoš).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

خوش (ḵōš)

  1. (with a following noun) good, nice, pleasant.
    اهي خوش زوجة.
    ihya ḵōš zōja
    She’s a good wife.

Usage notes[edit]

  • This is a prepositive adjective, and thus must come before the noun it modifies.

Interjection[edit]

خوش (ḵōš)

  1. nice, good, OK, alright, awesome.
    - بنروح المخيم باچر
    - خوش!
    - We wanna go camping tomorrow.
    - Awesome!

Iraqi Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Persian خوش (xoš).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

خوش (ḵōšm or f

  1. (with a following noun) good; someone or something good
    هايه خوش سيارة
    hāya ḵōš sayyāra
    This is a good car.

Interjection[edit]

خوش (ḵōš)

  1. nice, good, OK, alright, awesome.

Usage notes[edit]

  • This is a prepositive adjective, and thus must come before the noun it modifies.

Synonyms[edit]

North Mesopotamian Arabic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Persian خوش (xoš).

Adjective[edit]

خوش (ḵōšm or f

  1. (with a following noun) good; someone or something good
    هذي خوش سيارة
    haðiːḵōš səj.jɑː.rə
    This is a good car.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The sense is adjectival, but the construction is like that of a noun or pronoun.

Synonyms[edit]

Persian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Persian [Book Pahlavi needed] (xwš /⁠xʷaš⁠/, pleasant, sweet, nice), Manichaean Middle Persian 𐫟𐫇𐫢 (xwš /⁠xʷaš⁠/, pleasant, good), from Proto-Iranian. Cognate with Parthian 𐫇𐫟𐫢 (wxš /⁠wxaš⁠/, pleasant, sweet), Northern Kurdish xweş, Zazaki weş, Gurani [script needed] (wäš), Baluchi وش (waš(š)) and possibly Khotanese khaṣṣa- (pleasant). Doublet of وش (vaš).

The reconstruction of the Proto-Iranian form and its further relations are uncertain. Perhaps Proto-Iranian *hwarša-, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *swarćša-, from Proto-Indo-European *swelḱs (taste (sweet)), and cognate with Jassic horz and Old Armenian քաղցր (kʿałcʿr).[1][2] An older proposal explains as Proto-Iranian *hw-aši-, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Hsu-Hákši (provided with beautiful sight, beautiful to the eye, or with a kind eye, literally good-eye).[3][4][5]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)
 

Readings
Classical reading? xwaš
Dari reading? xuš, xōš
Iranian reading? xoš
Tajik reading? xuš

Adjective[edit]

Dari خوش
Iranian Persian
Tajik хуш

خوش (xoš) (comparative خوش‌تَر (xoš-tar), superlative خوش‌تَرین (xoš-tarin))

  1. happy
  2. pleasant

Inflection[edit]

    Predicative forms of خوش (xoš)
singular plural
1st person
(“I am, we are”)
خوشم
(xošam)
خوشیم
(xošim)
2nd person
(“you are”)
خوشی
(xoši)
خوشید
(xošid)
خوشین
(xošin)
3rd person
(“he/she/it is, they are”)
خوش است
(xoš ast)
خوشه
(xoše)
خوشند
(xošand)
خوشن
(xošan)
Colloquial.

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gert, Klingenschmitt (2000), “Mittelpersisch”, in Bernhard Forssman, Robert Plath, editors, Indoarisch, Iranisch und die Indogermanistik: Arbeitstagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft vom 2. bis 5. Oktober 1997 in Erlangen (in German), Wiesbaden: Reichert, page 204
  2. ^ Korn, Agnes (2005) Towards a Historical Grammar of Balochi: Studies in Balochi Historical Phonology and Vocabulary (Beiträge zur Iranistik; 26)‎[1], Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, page 132
  3. ^ Müller, Friedrich (1891), “Bemerkungen über awestische, pahlawi und neupersische Etymologien”, in Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes[2] (in German), volume 5, page 352 of 348–356
  4. ^ Horn, Paul (1893) Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologie (in German), Strasbourg: K.J. Trübner, § 113, page 508
  5. ^ Rastorgujeva, V. S.; Edelʹman, D. I. (2007) Etimologičeskij slovarʹ iranskix jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of Iranian Languages] (in Russian), volume III, Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura, page 415

Further reading[edit]

Saraiki[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Classical Persian خوش (xʷuš, xʷaš).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

خوش (xoś) (Devanagari ख़ुश)

  1. happy

Urdu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Classical Persian خوش (xʷuš, xʷaš).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

خوش (xuś) (indeclinable, Hindi spelling ख़ुश)

  1. happy
  2. content

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • خوش”, in اُردُو لُغَت (urdū luġat) (in Urdu), Ministry of Education: Government of Pakistan, 2017.
  • خوش”, in ریخْتَہ لُغَت (rexta luġat) - Rekhta Dictionary [Urdu dictionary with meanings in Hindi & English], Noida, India: Rekhta Foundation, 2024.
  • Qureshi, Bashir Ahmad (1971), “خوش”, in Kitabistan's 20th Century Standard Dictionary‎, Lahore: Kitabistan Pub. Co.

Uyghur[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

خوش (xosh)

  1. goodbye