ἄναξ

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See also: άναξ

Ancient Greek[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From earlier ϝάναξ (wánax), ϝάνακος (wánakos); probably from Pre-Greek.[1]

Cognate with Mycenaean Greek 𐀷𐀙𐀏 (wa-na-ka).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Noun[edit]

ἄνᾰξ (ánaxm (genitive ἄνᾰκτος); third declension

  1. lord, king
    1. (of men)
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 1.442–443
        ὦ Χρύση, πρό μ’ ἔπεμψεν ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν Ἀγαμέμνων
        παῖδά τε σοὶ ἀγέμεν
        ô Khrúsē, pró m’ épempsen ánax andrôn Agamémnōn
        paîdá te soì agémen
        Chryses, Agamemnon, king of men, sent me forth
        to bring to you your daughter.
    2. (of gods, often Apollo and Zeus)
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 3.351
        Ζεῦ ἄνα δὸς τῑ́σασθαι ὅ με πρότερος κάκ’ ἔοργε
        δῖον Ἀλέξανδρον, καὶ ἐμῇς ὑπὸ χερσὶ δάμασσον
        Zeû ána dòs tī́sasthai hó me próteros kák’ éorge
        dîon Aléxandron, kaì emêis hupò khersì dámasson
        O Lord Zeus, grant me to punish the man who first has done me wrong,
        noble Alexander, and beat him down under my hands
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Homeric Hymn to Apollo 14–15
        χαῖρε, μάκαιρ’ ὦ Λητοῖ, ἐπεὶ τέκες ἀγλαὰ τέκνα,
        Ᾱ̓πόλλωνά τ’ ἄνακτα καὶ Ἄρτεμιν ῑ̓οχέαιραν,
        khaîre, mákair’ ô Lētoî, epeì tékes aglaà tékna,
        Āpóllōná t’ ánakta kaì Ártemin īokhéairan,
        Rejoice, blessed Leto, since you have borne glorious children —
        the lord Apollo and Artemis strewer of arrows,
      • 458 BCE, Aeschylus, Agamemnon 513
        νῦν δ’ αὖτε σωτὴρ ἴσθι καὶ παιώνιος,
        ἄναξ Ἄπολλον.
        nûn d’ aûte sōtḕr ísthi kaì paiṓnios,
        ánax Ápollon.
        But, in other mood, be our preserver and our healer,
        O lord Apollo.
  2. master, owner
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 1.397–398
      αὐτὰρ ἐγὼν οἴκοιο ἄναξ ἔσομ’ ἡμετέροιο
      καὶ δμώων, οὕς μοι ληίσσατο δῖος Ὀδυσσεύς.
      autàr egṑn oíkoio ánax ésom’ hēmetéroio
      kaì dmṓōn, hoús moi lēíssato dîos Odusseús.
      [Telemachus:] But I shall be lord of our own house
      and of the slaves that godlike Odysseus won for me."

Usage notes[edit]

  • Often used to refer to Apollo. The vocative ᾰ̓́νᾰ (ána) is only used in the phrases ὦ ἄνα (ô ána, O king) or ὦνα (ôna), and Ζεῦ ἄνα (Zeû ána, O Zeus), and always as an address to gods.

Inflection[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἄναξ, -ακτος [m.]”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 98-99

Further reading[edit]