ἄναξ

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From earlier ϝάναξ (wánax), ϝάνακος (wánakos) (cf. Mycenaean Greek 𐀷𐀙𐀏 (wa-na-ka)); probably from Pre-Greek.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Noun[edit]

ἄνᾰξ (ánaxm (genitive ἄνᾰκτος); third declension

  1. lord, king
    1. (of men)
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 1.442–443
        ὦ Χρύση, πρό μ᾽ ἔπεμψεν ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν Ἀγαμέμνων
        παῖδά τε σοὶ ἀγέμεν
        ô Khrúsē, pró m᾽ épempsen ánax andrôn Agamémnōn
        paîdá te soì agémen
        Chryses, Agamemnon, king of men, sent me forth
        to bring to you your daughter.
    2. (of gods, often Apollo and Zeus)
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 3.351
        Ζεῦ ἄνα δὸς τῑ́σασθαι ὅ με πρότερος κάκ' ἔοργε
        δῖον Ἀλέξανδρον, καὶ ἐμῇς ὑπὸ χερσὶ δάμασσον
        Zeû ána dòs tī́sasthai hó me próteros kák' éorge
        dîon Aléxandron, kaì emêis hupò khersì dámasson
        O Lord Zeus, grant me to punish the man who first has done me wrong,
        noble Alexander, and beat him down under my hands
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Homeric Hymn to Apollo 14–15
        χαῖρε, μάκαιρ' ὦ Λητοῖ, ἐπεὶ τέκες ἀγλαὰ τέκνα,
        Ᾱ̓πόλλωνά τ' ἄνακτα καὶ Ἄρτεμιν ῑ̓οχέαιραν,
        khaîre, mákair' ô Lētoî, epeì tékes aglaà tékna,
        Āpóllōná t' ánakta kaì Ártemin īokhéairan,
        Rejoice, blessed Leto, since you have borne glorious children —
        the lord Apollo and Artemis strewer of arrows,
      • 458 BCE, Aeschylus, Agamemnon 513
        νῦν δ᾽ αὖτε σωτὴρ ἴσθι καὶ παιώνιος,
        ἄναξ Ἄπολλον.
        nûn d᾽ aûte sōtḕr ísthi kaì paiṓnios,
        ánax Ápollon.
        But, in other mood, be our preserver and our healer,
        O lord Apollo.
  2. master, owner
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 1.397–398
      αὐτὰρ ἐγὼν οἴκοιο ἄναξ ἔσομ᾽ ἡμετέροιο
      καὶ δμώων, οὕς μοι ληίσσατο δῖος Ὀδυσσεύς.
      autàr egṑn oíkoio ánax ésom᾽ hēmetéroio
      kaì dmṓōn, hoús moi lēíssato dîos Odusseús.
      [Telemachus:] But I shall be lord of our own house
      and of the slaves that godlike Odysseus won for me."

Usage notes[edit]

  • Often used to refer to Apollo. The vocative ᾰ̓́νᾰ (ána) is only used in the phrases ὦ ἄνα (ô ána, O king) or ὦνα (ôna), and Ζεῦ ἄνα (Zeû ána, O Zeus), and always as an address to gods.

Inflection[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἄναξ, -ακτος [m.]”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 98-99

Further reading[edit]