ἄναξ

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From earlier ϝάναξ (wánax), ϝάνακος (wánakos) (cf. Mycenaean Greek 𐀷𐀙𐀏 (wa-na-ka)); probably from Pre-Greek.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

 
  • (5th BCE Attic) IPA(key): /á.naks/
  • (1st CE Egyptian) IPA(key): /ˈa.naks/
  • (4th CE Koine) IPA(key): /ˈa.naks/
  • (10th CE Byzantine) IPA(key): /ˈa.naks/
  • (15th CE Constantinopolitan) IPA(key): /ˈa.naks/
  • Noun[edit]

    ἄνᾰξ (ánaxm (genitive ἄνᾰκτος); third declension

    1. lord, king
      1. (of men)
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 1.442–443
          ὦ Χρύση, πρό μ᾽ ἔπεμψεν ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν Ἀγαμέμνων
          παῖδά τε σοὶ ἀγέμεν
          ô Khrúsē, pró m᾽ épempsen ánax andrôn Agamémnōn
          paîdá te soì agémen
          Chryses, Agamemnon, king of men, sent me forth
          to bring to you your daughter.
      2. (of gods, often Apollo and Zeus)
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 3.351
          Ζεῦ ἄνα δὸς τῑ́σασθαι ὅ με πρότερος κάκ' ἔοργε
          δῖον Ἀλέξανδρον, καὶ ἐμῇς ὑπὸ χερσὶ δάμασσον
          Zeû ána dòs tī́sasthai hó me próteros kák' éorge
          dîon Aléxandron, kaì emêis hupò khersì dámasson
          O Lord Zeus, grant me to punish the man who first has done me wrong,
          noble Alexander, and beat him down under my hands
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Homeric Hymn to Apollo 14–15
          χαῖρε, μάκαιρ' ὦ Λητοῖ, ἐπεὶ τέκες ἀγλαὰ τέκνα,
          Ᾱ̓πόλλωνά τ' ἄνακτα καὶ Ἄρτεμιν ῑ̓οχέαιραν,
          khaîre, mákair' ô Lētoî, epeì tékes aglaà tékna,
          Āpóllōná t' ánakta kaì Ártemin īokhéairan,
          Rejoice, blessed Leto, since you have borne glorious children —
          the lord Apollo and Artemis strewer of arrows,
        • 458 BCE, Aeschylus, Agamemnon 513
          νῦν δ᾽ αὖτε σωτὴρ ἴσθι καὶ παιώνιος,
          ἄναξ Ἄπολλον.
          nûn d᾽ aûte sōtḕr ísthi kaì paiṓnios,
          ánax Ápollon.
          But, in other mood, be our preserver and our healer,
          O lord Apollo.
    2. master, owner
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 1.397–398
        αὐτὰρ ἐγὼν οἴκοιο ἄναξ ἔσομ᾽ ἡμετέροιο
        καὶ δμώων, οὕς μοι ληίσσατο δῖος Ὀδυσσεύς.
        autàr egṑn oíkoio ánax ésom᾽ hēmetéroio
        kaì dmṓōn, hoús moi lēíssato dîos Odusseús.
        [Telemachus:] But I shall be lord of our own house
        and of the slaves that godlike Odysseus won for me."

    Usage notes[edit]

    • Often used to refer to Apollo. The vocative ᾰ̓́νᾰ (ána) is only used in the phrases ὦ ἄνα (ô ána, O king) or ὦνα (ôna), and Ζεῦ ἄνα (Zeû ána, O Zeus), and always as an address to gods.

    Inflection[edit]

    Synonyms[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἄναξ, -ακτος [m.]”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 98-99

    Further reading[edit]