ὕδωρ

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See also: ύδωρ

Ancient Greek[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *wódr̥ (genitive *wednós (of water), with ω (ō) from the plural), from the root *wed- (whence also ὕω (húō, to water, to let rain, to rain)). Cognates include Latin unda, Sanskrit उदन् (udán), Hittite 𒉿𒀀𒋻 (wa-a-tar /wātar/), Old Armenian գետ (get, river), Gothic 𐍅𐌰𐍄𐍉 (watō), Old Church Slavonic вода (voda) and Old English wæter (English water).

Pronunciation[edit]

 
  • (5th BCE Attic) IPA(key): /hý.dɔːr/
  • (1st CE Egyptian) IPA(key): /ˈ(h)y.dor/
  • (4th CE Koine) IPA(key): /ˈy.ðor/
  • (10th CE Byzantine) IPA(key): /ˈy.ðor/
  • (15th CE Constantinopolitan) IPA(key): /ˈi.ðor/
  • Noun[edit]

    ῠ̔́δωρ (húdōrn (genitive ῠ̔́δᾰτος); third declension

    1. water
    2. rainwater, rain
    3. sweat
    4. time (from the waterclocks of Greek legal systems)

    Usage notes[edit]

    The first upsilon is sometimes lengthened in poetry:

    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 1.110
      οἱ μὲν ἄρ' οἶνον ἔμισγον ἐνὶ κρητῆρσι καὶ ῡ̔́δωρ,
      hoi mèn ár' oînon émisgon enì krētêrsi kaì hū́dōr,
      some were mixing wine and water in mixing bowls,
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 4.216
      ὣς ἔφατ', Ἀσφαλίων δ' ἄρ ῠ̔́δωρ ἐπὶ χεῖρας ἔχευεν,
      hṑs éphat', Asphalíōn d' ár húdōr epì kheîras ékheuen,
      So [Menelaus] said, and Asphalion poured water on their hands,

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