Appendix:Gothic pronunciation

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents the reconstruction of Gothic pronunciations in Wiktionary entries.

See Gothic language § Phonology at Wikipedia for a more thorough look at the sounds of Gothic.

Consonants
IPA Examples Approximation in Eng-
lish or another modern
European language
/b/ 𐌱𐌰𐌲𐌼𐍃 (bagms) ball
[β][1] 𐌷𐌰𐌱𐌰𐌽 (haban) Spanish haber
/d/ 𐌳𐌰𐌲𐍃 (dags) done
[ð][2] 𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰 (þiuda) this
/f/[3] 𐍆𐌰𐌳𐌰𐍂 (fadar) fuss
/ɡ/ 𐌲𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌳𐌰 (gairda) guest
/ɡ(ɡ)ʷ/ 𐍃𐌰𐌲𐌲𐍅𐍃 (saggws),
𐍄𐍂𐌹𐌲𐌲𐍅𐍃 (triggws)
guano
[ɣ][4] 𐌰𐌿𐌲𐍉 (augō) Dutch dagen
/h/ 𐌷𐌰𐌱𐌰𐌽 (haban) hut
/j/ 𐌾𐌰 (ja) yard
/ɟɟ/ 𐌹𐌳𐌳𐌾𐌰 (iddja) duty (RP)[5]
/k/ 𐌺𐌰𐌻𐌱𐍉 (kalbō) cold
/kʷ/ 𐌵𐌰𐌹𐌽𐍉𐌽 (qainōn) quake
/l/ 𐌻𐌰𐌲𐌲𐌴𐌹 (laggei) lamp
/m/ 𐌼𐌰𐌲𐌰𐌽 (magan) must
/n/ 𐌽𐌰𐌳𐍂𐍃 (nadrs) not
[ŋ][6] 𐌸𐌰𐌲𐌺𐌾𐌰𐌽 (þagkjan),
𐍃𐌰𐌲𐌲𐍅𐍃 (saggws)
long
/p/ 𐍀𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌰 (paida) puck
/r/ 𐍂𐌰𐌲𐌹𐌽 (ragin) Italian regno
/s/ 𐍃𐌰𐌲𐌲𐍅𐍃 (saggws) soon
/t/ 𐍄𐌰𐌲𐌻 (tagl) tall
/θ/ 𐌸𐌰𐌲𐌺𐌾𐌰𐌽 (þagkjan) think
/w/ 𐍅𐌰𐌲𐌲𐍃 (waggs) window
/ʍ/ 𐍈𐌰𐌳𐍂𐌴 (ƕadrē) white (Scottish)
/x/[7] 𐍇𐍂𐌹𐍃𐍄𐌿𐍃 (xristus),
𐌳𐌰𐌲𐍃 (dags)
loch (Scottish)
/z/ 𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌶𐌰 (maiza) zoo
Stress
/ˈ/ 𐌽𐌰𐌼𐍉 (namō) (/ˈnamoː/) as in number /ˈnʌmbɚ/
Vowels
IPA Examples Approximation in Eng-
lish or another modern
European language
Short
/a/ 𐍄𐌰𐌲𐌻 (tagl) bra (but shorter);
pot (American)
/ɛ/ 𐍄𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌿𐌽 (taihun)[8] bet
/i/ 𐍄𐌹𐌲𐌿𐍃 (tigus) beet (but shorter)
/ɔ/ 𐌳𐌰𐌿𐌷𐍄𐌰𐍂 (dauhtar)[9] boss
/u/ 𐍄𐌿𐌲𐌲𐍉 (tuggō) boot (but shorter)
/y/[10] 𐍃𐍅𐌽𐌰𐌲𐍉𐌲𐌴 (swnagōgē) French Luc
Long
/aː/ 𐌱𐍂𐌰𐌷𐍄𐌰 (brāhta) bra
/eː/ 𐍄𐌴𐌺𐌰𐌽 (tēkan) day (but monophthongal)
/ɛː/ 𐍄𐌰𐌹𐌽𐍃 (tains)[11] bed (but longer)
/iː/ 𐌱𐌴𐌹𐌳𐌰𐌽 (beidan) bee
/oː/ 𐌱𐍉𐌺𐌰 (bōka) toe (but monophthongal)
/ɔː/ 𐍄𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽 (taujan)[12] paw
/uː/ 𐌱𐍂𐌿𐌺𐍃 (brūks) food
Diphthong
/iu̯/ 𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌱𐌹 (þiubi) be with
Notes
  1. ^ An allophone of /b/ between vowels; devoiced to /f/ before a voiceless consonant or at the end of a word
  2. ^ An allophone of /d/ between vowels; devoiced to /θ/ before a voiceless consonant or at the end of a word
  3. ^ Possibly actually bilabial /ɸ/
  4. ^ An allophone of /ɡ/ after vowels; devoiced to /x/ before a voiceless consonant or at the end of a word
  5. ^ But articulated further back on the hard palate, and long
  6. ^ An allophone of /n/ before /k(ʷ)/ or /ɡ(ʷ)/
  7. ^ Phonemic only in Greek loanwords; usually allophone of /ɡ/ after vowels and before a voiceless consonant or at the end of a word
  8. ^ Also transliterated
  9. ^ Also transliterated
  10. ^ Only in Greek loanwords
  11. ^ Also transliterated ái
  12. ^ Also transliterated áu