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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *ba (Matisoff, STEDT; Benedict, 1972; Chou, 1972)

Likely cognate with Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bəw ‎(to carry (on back or shoulders)). Note the similarity with:

  • Proto-Mon-Khmer *ɓɔʔ ‎(to carry on back) (Khmer ‎(pɔɔ, to carry (on back, on hip, in arms))
  • Proto-Mon-Khmer *(d)ɓa(ː)k ‎(to bestride, to be bestridden, have hanging down e.g. round neck) (Khmer ពាក់ ‎(peak, to hang, to wear), Mon လဇက် ‎(həbɛk, to hang over horizontal support, to wear round neck), Vietnamese vác ‎(to carry over shoulder))


  1. to carry
  2. shoulder


  • Old Chinese:
    /*bəʔ/ (B-S), /*bɯʔ/ (ZS) ("to carry on the back; to bear; to lose, to fail")
    /*pˁək-s/ (B-S), /*pɯːgs/ (ZS) ("back (of body)")
    /*m-pˁək-s/ (B-S), /*bɯːgs/ (ZS) ("to turn the back on, to carry on the back")
    /*pˁək/ (B-S), /*pɯːg/ (ZS) ("north, i.e. what the back is turned to when facing south")
    • Middle Chinese: /bɨuX/, /puʌiH, buʌiH/, /pək/

         Japanese:   (ほく, hoku)
            Korean:   ‎(buk) (, buk)
            Vietnamese:  bắc

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /fu⁵¹/); (bèi, /peɪ̯⁵¹/, "back"), (bēi, /peɪ̯⁵⁵/, "to carry on the back"); (běi, /peɪ̯²¹⁴/)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Apatani ("Ba"-to carry on back)
          • Tibetan
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish