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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From Proto-Indo-European *h₃órbʰos (orphan). According to the majority view, cognate with Ancient Greek ὀρφανός (orphanós, orphaned), Latin orbus (orphaned), Old Armenian որբ (orb, orphan; orphaned) and Sanskrit अर्भ (árbha, small). Per Derksen, probably also cognate with Gothic 𐌰𐍂𐌱𐌰𐌹𐌸𐍃 (arbaiþs, labor), Old Norse erfiði (labor).


*orbъ m

  1. servant, slave


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  • Derksen, Rick (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 373
  • Trubačev O. N., Žuravlev A. F., editors (2005), “*orbъ/*orba”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 32, Moscow: Nauka, page 131
  • Vasmer, Max (1964–1973), “раб”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), translated from German and supplemented by Trubačev O. N., Moscow: Progress
  • Савва Михайлович (2012), “22 Древнерусских глаголических надписи-граффити XI–XII веков из Новгорода” in Slovo, vol. 62, pp. 63-99.