Latinus

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See also: latinus and latīņus

Latin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Lati- +‎ -īnus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

Latīnus (feminine Latīna, neuter Latīnum, adverb Latīnē); first/second-declension adjective

  1. Latin; of or pertaining to the Latin language, people, or culture
    nōmen Latīnumthe Latin right/citizenship (iūs Latiī)
    poēta Latīnusa Latin-writing (male) poet
    • 3rd c. BCE, Naevius, Epitaphium :
      Inmortales mortales si foret fas flere,
      flerent divae Camenae Naevium poetam.
      Itaque postquam est Orchi traditus thesauro,
      obliti sunt Romae loquier linguā Latinā.
      If the immortals were allowed to weep for mortals,
      the divine Muses would weep for Naevius the poet.
      After he was carried to Pluto's treasure vault,
      the Romans forgot to speak Latin.
    • c. 35 CE – 100 CE, Quintilian, Institutiones Oratoriae 2.14.5:
      Ne pugnemus igitur, cum praesertim plurimis alioqui Graecis sit utendum. Nam certe et "philosophos" et "musicos" et "geometras" dicam, nec vim adferam nominibus his indecora in Latinum sermonem mutatione.
      So let's not fight over it, considering that in many other cases, Greek nouns have to be used. Certainly, I will say philosophos, musicos and geometras, and I will not do violence to these nouns by turning them uglily into Latin words.
    • early 7th c. CE, Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae sive Origines 9.1:
      Tres sunt autem linguae sacrae: Hebraea, Graeca, Latina, quae toto orbe maxime excellunt. His enim tribus linguis super crucem Domini a Pilato fuit causa eius scripta.
      Three are the sacred languages: Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, which most greatly excel in the world. It was in these three languages that Pilate wrote the Lord's legal charge on His cross. (ref. to John 19:20)

Usage notes[edit]

With verbs of translation, the neuter singular is generally used for both the target and source languages: librum ē Graecō in Latīnum reddō ("I am translating a book from Greek into Latin").

Aside from the latter, language adjectives are extremely rarely used on their own in pre-Classical, Classical and Late Latin, becoming more common not until well into the medieval period; adverbs like Latīnē are used instead, e.g. Latīnē loquantur ("they should speak Latin"). For situations where this isn't possible, e.g. as the subject of a verb, the noun lingua must be included: Lingua Latīna placet, et prōdest! ("Latin is a joy, and is useful!").

Declension[edit]

First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative Latīnus Latīna Latīnum Latīnī Latīnae Latīna
Genitive Latīnī Latīnae Latīnī Latīnōrum Latīnārum Latīnōrum
Dative Latīnō Latīnō Latīnīs
Accusative Latīnum Latīnam Latīnum Latīnōs Latīnās Latīna
Ablative Latīnō Latīnā Latīnō Latīnīs
Vocative Latīne Latīna Latīnum Latīnī Latīnae Latīna

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Padanian:
    • Piedmontese: ladin (sliding), lein
    • Ladin: ladin (linguistic autonym)
    • Lombard: ladin (sliding, agile), ledin (smooth, sleek), lidin (smooth, light), ladí (easily to move)
    • Romansch: ladin (nimble)
  • Northern Gallo-Romance:
    • Franco-Provençal: leino (easy), laina (agile)
  • Southern Gallo-Romance:
    • Old Catalan: lladí (crafty)
  • Ibero-Romance:
  • Ancient borrowings:
  • Learned borrowings

References[edit]

  • Latinus”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • Latinus”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • Latinus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Latinus in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[1], pre-publication website, 2005-2016
  • von Wartburg, Walther (1928–2002), “latīnus”, in Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 5: J L, page 199