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This Proto-Celtic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From Proto-Indo-European *ne. Cognate with (na), ne, 𐌽𐌹 (ni).



  1. not


  • Celtiberian: ne

Derived terms[edit]

  • *nīs(t) (is not) (in Insular Celtic coming to mean simply ‘not’)
    • Brythonic: *ni
      • Old Breton: ne
        • Middle Breton: ne
          • Breton: ne
      • Cornish: ny
      • Old Welsh: ni
    • Old Irish:

Further reading[edit]

  • Matasović, Ranko (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN
  • Schrijver, Peter (1997) Studies in the History of Celtic Pronouns and Particles (Maynooth Studies in Celtic Linguistics; 2), Maynooth: St. Patrick's College, Department of Old Irish, National University of Ireland, →ISBN, p. 158
  • Jordán Cólera, Carlos (1998) Introducción al celtibérico (Monografías de filología griega; 10), Zaragoza: Departamento de Ciencias de la Antigüedad, Area de Filología Griega, Universidad de Zaragoza, →ISBN, p. 103