Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/(s)kewH-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*(s)kewH-

  1. to cover, conceal, hide
  2. hide, skin

Extensions[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

  • *(s)ku-né-H-ti
  • *(s)kewH-lo-
    • >? Proto-Celtic: *kūlos
      • Proto-Brythonic: *kil
        • Breton: kil (nape, back)
        • Welsh: cil (corner, nook; nape, back)
      • Old Irish: cúl (posterior)
    • Proto-Germanic: *skeulą (shelter, hiding place)[2] (see there for further descendants)
      • Proto-Germanic: *skiulijaną (to shelter, hide)[3] (see there for further descendants)
    • >? Proto-Italic: *kūlos[4]
      • Latin: cūlus (posterior) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Hellenic:
  • *(s)kewH-ṓ
    • Proto-Germanic: *skiwô (cloud cover, haze, sky)[6] (see there for further descendants)
      • Proto-Germanic: *skiwją (cloud, sky) (see there for further descendants)
  • *(s)kéwH-tis ~ *(s)kuH-téys (skin, hide; sac)
    • Proto-Celtic: *kutis
      • Proto-Brythonic: *kud
        • Welsh: cwd (pouch, bag, sac, purse; scrotum)
    • Proto-Germanic: *hūdiz (hide, skin)[7] (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Italic: *kutis[8]
      • Latin: cutis (skin, hide, leather) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Tocharian: *kwāc[9][10]
      • Tocharian A: kāc (skin)
    • *(s)kuH-ty-eh₂ or *(s)kuH-ty-ō[9]
  • *(s)kowH-éh₂[11]
    • Proto-Germanic: *hawō
      • Old Norse:  f (hide)
  • *(s)kówH-l̥ ~ *(s)kówH-ōl
    • *(s)kowH-ol
      • Proto-Germanic: *skawalô[12]
        • >? Old Norse: skáli (small building, shed, barn; room; drinking hall)
          • Middle English: scale
            • English: scale (dialectal)
          • Faroese: skáli
          • Icelandic: skáli (hut, shed; barn, lodge; hall, dining hall)
          • Norwegian Bokmål: skåle (hut)
          • Swedish: skål, skåla (hut) (dialectal)
  • *(s)kuH-r-éh₂
    • Proto-Germanic: *skūrō (shelter) (see there for further descendants)
  • *(s)kuH-s-ó-m
    • >? Proto-Germanic: *hūsą (house) (see there for further descendants)
  • *(s)kúH-t-ō
    • >? Proto-Germanic: *huþô (testicle)[13] (see there for further descendants)
  • *(s)kuH-tó-m
    • Latin: scūtum (shield, defense) (see there for further descendants)
  • *(s)ku(H)-tó-s
    • Ancient Greek: σκῦτος (skûtos, skin, hide)
    • Ancient Greek: κύτος (kútos, hollow vessel) (possibly, alternatively from *(s)kew- (to pluck))
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Proto-Armenian:
    • >? Proto-Balto-Slavic: *kjáuˀtas (shell, skin)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
    • Proto-Germanic:
    • Proto-Germanic: *husǭ (outer covering, shell, husk; leggings) (see there for further descendants)
      • Proto-Indo-Iranian:
        • Proto-Indo-Aryan:
      • Proto-Indo-Iranian:
    • >? Proto-Italic: *kustots
      • Latin: custōs (guard, keeper, jailer) (see there for further descendants)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Orel, Vladimir (2003), “*xūđjanan”, in A Handbook of Germanic Etymology, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 196
  2. ^ Orel, Vladimir (2003), “*skeulan ~ *skūlan”, in A Handbook of Germanic Etymology, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 339
  3. ^ Orel, Vladimir (2003), “*skeuljanan ~ *skūljanan”, in A Handbook of Germanic Etymology, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 339
  4. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “cūlus”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 151
  5. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “σκύλος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1363
  6. ^ Orel, Vladimir (2003), “*skiwōn”, in A Handbook of Germanic Etymology, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 341
  7. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*hūdi-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 251–252
  8. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “cutis”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 160
  9. 9.0 9.1 Hilmarsson, Jörundur (1985), “Toch. A kāc, Lat. cutis, OIcel. húð < I.E. *kuHtís ‘skin’”, in Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung, volume 98, pages 162–163
  10. 10.0 10.1 Adams, Douglas Q. (2013), “kātso”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, pages 165–166
  11. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*hawō-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 218
  12. ^ de Vries, Jan (1977), “skáli”, in Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Old Norse Etymological Dictionary] (in German), 2nd revised edition, Leiden: Brill, page 481b
  13. ^ Orel, Vladimir (2003), “*xūđiz”, in A Handbook of Germanic Etymology, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 196: “WGmc *xuþan ‘testicle’”