custos

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Latin cū̆stōs.

Noun[edit]

custos (plural custodes)

  1. (obsolete) A warden.
    • c. 1530, John Rastell, The Pastyme of People: The Cronycles of Dyuers Realmys, London,[3]
      [] they were commytted to prison & put out of theyr offyces & the Constable of the Towre made custos of the citye.
    • 1803, Robert Charles Dallas, The History of the Maroons, London: Longman and Rees, Volume 1, Letter 5, p. 148,[4]
      Mr. Tharp, the Custos of the parish, and several other gentlement, accompanied the corps.
  2. (Roman Catholicism) A monastic superior, who, under the general of his order, has the direction of all the religious houses of the same fraternity in a given district, called a custody of the order.

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Italic *kustots, further etymology unclear. The proposal that it is derived from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewdʰ- (to cover, wrap, encase), from *(s)kew- (to cover, hide) (whence Ancient Greek κεύθω (keúthō, to conceal), Old English hȳdan (to hide, conceal, preserve)) raises questions about the development of the medial /st/. Some etymologists consider /st/ to be the regular outcome in Latin of PIE *dʰ-t, based on aestās and aestus, a position which requires analyzing the /ss/ found in participle forms such as iussus and fossus as the result of analogy with forms built on stems ending in other dental consonants[1]. On the other hand, Michiel de Vaan argues that, as the usual reflex of dental clusters in Latin is /ss/, it is better to analyze the /st/ of aestās and aestus as an analogical reformation, not as the regular outcome of *dʰ-t[2]. Therefore, de Vaan's viewpoint is that the /st/ in custos is unexplained and the etymology unknown[3].

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈkuːs.toːs/, [ˈkuːs̠.t̪oːs̠] or IPA(key): /ˈkus.toːs/, [ˈkʊs̠.t̪oːs̠]
  • (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ˈkus.tos/, [ˈkus.t̪ɔs]
  • Note: vowel length uncertain due to unclear etymological and graphic evidence - see the Discussion page.

Noun[edit]

cū̆stōs m (genitive cū̆stōdis); third declension

  1. A guard, protector, watchman
  2. A guardian, tutor
  3. A jailer
  4. A keeper, custodian

Declension[edit]

Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative cū̆stōs cū̆stōdēs
Genitive cū̆stōdis cū̆stōdum
Dative cū̆stōdī cū̆stōdibus
Accusative cū̆stōdem cū̆stōdēs
Ablative cū̆stōde cū̆stōdibus
Vocative cū̆stōs cū̆stōdēs

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stuart-Smith, Jane (2004) Phonetics and Phonology: Sound Change in Italic (Oxford University Press), page 43; citing Leumann 1977: 168, Meiser 1998: 124
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[1], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 28
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[2], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 159

Portuguese[edit]

Noun[edit]

custos

  1. plural of custo