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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. salt


Athematic, proterokinetic
nominative *séh₂ls
genitive *sh₂lés
singular dual plural
nominative *séh₂ls
vocative *séh₂l
accusative *séh₂lm̥
genitive *sh₂lés
ablative *sh₂lés
dative *sh₂léy
locative *sh₂él, *sh₂éli
instrumental *sh₂léh₁


  • Proto-Albanian: *śālā
  • Proto-Albanian: * ̊śali(m)-
  • Proto-Albanian: *en-salima
  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: աղ ()
    • Old Armenian: աղտ (ałt) < *séh₂ld-
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *salˀdus (from *sh₂el-d-u-s or *sh₂l-d-u-s), *sāˀlis
    • Latgalian: sõļs, solds, soldons
    • Latvian: sāls, salds
    • Old Prussian: sal
    • Lithuanian: saldus, sálti (sweeten)
    • Proto-Slavic: *solь (see there for further descendants), *soldъ (malt) (see there for further descendants), *soldъkъ (sweet) (see there for further descendants)
      • Proto-Iranian: *solH (salt)
        • Zazaki: sol (salt)
        • Northern Kurdish: solin (salt), (saltless)
  • Proto-Celtic: *sālos (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Celtic: *salanos (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *saltą (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *hāls
  • Indo-Iranian:
    • Indo-Aryan:
    • Iranian
      • Persian: هلتاک(haltâk, salty yoghurt), هلث(halþ~halt, salty, salty food)
  • Italic:
    • Latin: sāl (see there for further descendants)
    • Umbrian: salu
  • Tocharian:
  • Proto-Uralic: (independent loans from early Indo-European at least in Finno-Permic and Ob-Ugric;[1] common Finno-Permic *sala is sometimes reconstructed[2])

Derived terms[edit]

  • Unsorted formations:


  1. ^ Joki, Aulis J. (1973) Uralier und Indogermanen [Uralians and Indo-Europeans] (Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Toimituksia; 151) (in German), Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, →ISBN
  2. ^ Rédei, Károly (1986–88) Uralisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Uralic Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó