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This template allows you to type the characters used in Proto-Indo-European, Proto-Germanic, and Proto-Hellenic notation, and Ancient Greek, Hittite, Sanskrit, Avestan, Gothic, and Arabic orthography. It must always be substituted. It uses the modules Module:typing-aids and Module:typing-aids/data. If you would like me (Erutuon) to add more languages, please post on Module talk:typing-aids.


Text, or language code if |2= is defined, or template name if |3= or |4= is defined.
Text, or language code if |3= is defined.

If a template name is given, this template, when substituted, will print out the arguments of that template. All arguments except for any text parameters will be printed out unchanged. {{l}} ({{link}}), {{m}} ({{mention}}), and {{ll}} are fully supported. Only two morphemes are supported in {{affix}}, {{prefix}}, and {{suffix}}.


shortcut result
{{subst:chars|e_}} ē
{{subst:chars|e', g', l'}} é, ǵ, ĺ
{{subst:chars|e_', n0'}} ḗ, ń̥
{{subst:chars|bher-}} bʰer-
{{subst:chars|h1es-}} h₁es-
{{subst:chars|a`, e`, o`}} ą, ę, ǫ
{{subst:chars|e^}} ê


When ine-pro is specified as the language, ^ is the shortcut for inverted breve above on *k̑ and *g̑, and for inverted breve below on *i̯, *u̯. These are used in place of *ḱ, *ǵ and *y, *w in some older reference works.

Ancient Greek[edit]

For Ancient Greek, the shortcuts are generally the same as those at Template:R:LSJ/documentation, with some exceptions. The shortcuts for diacritics can be entered in any order, and they will be shown in the correct order. If the = is used for the circumflex, then the parameter must be introduced by |2=.

shortcut result
{{subst:chars|grc|a_, a^}} ᾱ, ᾰ
{{subst:chars|grc|i+, a(, a)}} ϊ, ἁ, ἀ
{{subst:chars|grc|2=a/, a\, a=}} ά, ὰ, ᾶ
{{subst:chars|grc|2=u_(mei=s}} ῡ̔μεῖς
{{subst:chars|grc|s*}} σ

To mark vowel length on an Ancient Greek word in a template, prefix the template name with subst:chars| and add _ or ^ after the vowel. For example:

  • {{l|grc|ἀνθρωπικός}}
  • {{subst:chars|l|grc|ἀ^νθρωπι^κός}}

To reorder diacritics or convert spacing diacritics to combining, enclose Greek text in {{subst:chars|grc|}}:


The template currently recognizes the symbols used by the Bikdash Arabic Transliteration Rules, as well as some informal shortcuts from Arabic chat alphabet.

Use a doubled vowel letter for a long vowel.

Sukūns are added between consonants that do not have vowels, and doubled consonants are converted to a single consonant with shadda are added. But at the end of a word, type 0 to get a sukūn.

Hamzas are automatically converted to the correct seated or unseated form. al- is recognized, and a shadda is added to a following sun letter, or a sukūn to a following moon letter. Alif is converted to waṣla if the preceding word ends in a vowel.

W represents ٱ(), and t' represents ة().

Please report errors or make suggestions on Module talk:typing-aids.

shortcut result
{{subst:chars|ar|SabaaH al-Kayr}} صَبَاح الْخَيْر
{{subst:chars|ar|SabaaHu al-Kayri}} صَبَاحُ ٱلْخَيْرِ
{{subst:chars|ar|kitaab}} كِتَاب
{{subst:chars|ar|2i3raab}} إِعْرَاب
{{subst:chars|ar|bidaa'at'}} بِدَاءَة
{{subst:chars|ar|bidaaeiyy}} بِدَائِيّ
{{subst:chars|ar|maktuubuN}} مَكْتُوبٌ
{{subst:chars|ar|ean0}} أَنْ
{{subst:chars|ar|Hubb}} حُبّ
{{subst:chars|ar|maTEam}} مَطْعَم
{{subst:chars|ar|eaEZam}} أَعْظَم


The template recognizes all the letters usually used in the romanization of Gothic:

a b d e f g h ƕ i j k l m n o p q r s t þ u w x z

In addition, the following letter equivalencies can also be used:

c = þ
ē = e
ō = o
v = ƕ
shortcut result
{{subst:chars|got|ƕaiwa}} 𐍈𐌰𐌹𐍅𐌰
{{subst:chars|got|vaiwa}} 𐍈𐌰𐌹𐍅𐌰
{{subst:chars|got|anþar}} 𐌰𐌽𐌸𐌰𐍂
{{subst:chars|got|ancar}} 𐌰𐌽𐌸𐌰𐍂
{{subst:chars|got|fidwōr}} 𐍆𐌹𐌳𐍅𐍉𐍂
{{subst:chars|got|fidwor}} 𐍆𐌹𐌳𐍅𐍉𐍂
{{subst:chars|got|mikils}} 𐌼𐌹𐌺𐌹𐌻𐍃
{{subst:chars|got|hēr}} 𐌷𐌴𐍂
{{subst:chars|got|her}} 𐌷𐌴𐍂
{{subst:chars|got|vac}} 𐍈𐌰𐌸
{{subst:chars|got|ƕaþ}} 𐍈𐌰𐌸

Transforming into another template[edit]

If you place the name of a link template as the second parameter of {{chars}}, and add the rest of that template's parameters after the template name, Module:typing-aids will print out the template. If you do not substitute the template, the code will display in the preview window, as shown in the second column below. If you substitute it, {{chars}} will display as the corresponding link template and transform into the template when the page is saved, leaving no trace behind.

{{subst:chars|m|grc|a^)/nqrwpos|t=human being}}

{{m|grc|ᾰ̓́νθρωπος|t=human being}}

ᾰ̓́νθρωπος (ánthrōpos, human being)
{{subst:chars|l|grc|a^)/nqrwpos|t=human being}}

{{l|grc|ᾰ̓́νθρωπος|t=human being}}

ᾰ̓́νθρωπος (ánthrōpos, human being)


*h₂éǵros (field)
{{subst:chars|l|ine-pro|*gwhenti|*gwhe'n-ti ~ *gwhn-e'nti|pos=athematic root present}}

{{l|ine-pro|*gʷʰenti|*gʷʰén-ti ⁓ *gʷʰn-énti|pos=athematic root present}}

*gʷʰén-ti ⁓ *gʷʰn-énti (athematic root present)