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also: Wiktionary:Greek verb inflection-table templates/Parameters

The morphology of Greek verbs[edit]

Greek conjugations are structured around two aspects, Imperfective & Perfective, and two tenses, Non-past (present) & Past. The combination of these produces a 2-by-2 table. With most verbs this pattern will be reproduce twice, once for each voice Active and Passive:

Active voice Passive voice
Imperfective+Non-past Perfective+Non-past
Imperfective+Past Perfective+Past
Imperfective+Non-past Perfective+Non-past
Imperfective+Past Perfective+Past

Tables like that shown below are produced by using a template:

Active voice Passive voice
Indicative mood Imperfective aspect Perfective aspect Imperfective aspect Perfective aspect
Non-past tenses Present Dependent Present Dependent
1 sg διδάσκω διδάξω διδάσκομαι διδαχτώ
2 sg διδάσκεις διδάξεις διδάσκεσαι διδαχτείς
3 sg διδάσκει διδάξει διδάσκεται διδαχτεί
1 pl διδάσκουμε διδάξουμε διδασκόμαστε διδαχτούμε
2 pl διδάσκετε διδάξετε διδάσκεστε διδαχτείτε
3 pl διδάσκουν διδάξουν διδάσκονται διδαχτούν
Past tenses Imperfect Simple past Imperfect Simple past
1 sg δίδασκα δίδαξα διδασκόμουν διδάχτηκα
2 sg δίδασκες δίδαξες διδασκόσουν διδάχτηκες
3 sg δίδασκε δίδαξε διδασκόταν διδάχτηκε
1 pl διδάσκαμε διδάξαμε διδασκόμασταν διδαχτήκαμε
2 pl διδάσκατε διδάξατε διδασκόσασταν διδαχτήκατε
3 pl δίδασκαν δίδαξαν διδάσκονταν διδάχτηκαν

Second Conjugation (Type B — Oxytone)[edit]

  • The lemma forms of these verbs are stressed on the final syllable like θεωρώ.
  • The template {{el-conjug-2nd-B}} is used to produce their inflecton tables.
  • Three basic parameters used.
Description Stem examples
χτυπώ θεωρώ
stem stem of the lemma form χτυπώ διαιρώ θεωρώ
s-stem stressed stem of simple past singular χτύπ/span>ησα διαίρεσα θεώρησα
infix extra characters in the active perfective singular forms χτύπησα διαίρεσα θεώρησα


Conjugation 2018[edit]


  • the proposed template (@June/July currently "User:Saltmarsh/template1" for this verb type
  • Using two stems (stressed and unstressed)
  • stem   (= unstressed stem (θεωρ))
  • s-stem   (= stressed stem (θεώρ))
  • head-text
  • pattern   (= infix pattern (ησ, εσ, εσ2, etc))
  • no-a-perf2   blanks out 2nd active perfect tenses
  • no-p-perf2   blanks out 2nd passive perfect tenses
  • Internal template {{el-conjug-sub5}} picks the appropriate set (pattern) of "infixes" (internal suffix), see table below

Template:el-conjug-sub5 (internal)[edit]
  • patt — identifies the pattern of infixes as shown in the top line of the table below.
  • infix — identifies the particular infix used; shown in red below, the infix falls between a verb's stem and its ending.
patt= Example Found in
infix=   ησ     εσ     εσ2     εσ3     ασ  
Active act ησ1 εσ2 εσ3 εσ4 ασ5 θεώρησα Active singular simple past forms
Stressed active act-s ήσ έσ έσ έσ άσ θεωρήσω Active dependent forms
Passive pass ηθ εθ εστ ηθ αστ θεωρηθώ Passive dependent forms
Stressed passive pass-s ήθ έθ έστ ήθ άστ θεωρήθηκα Passive singular simple past forms
Present participle pres-p ού ού ού ού zzz1 θεωρούμενος Passive present participle
Perfect participle perf-p η ε εσ η zzz2 θεωρημένος Passive perfect participle
Illustrated by (with Iordanidou refs): 1 = θεωρώ(73/74),   2 = διαιρώ(76/77),   3 = τελώ(76/78),   4 = ανακαλώ (76/163),   5 = ανακλώ (71/72)

First Conjugation[edit]

Basic parameters[edit]
Parameter Stem examples
δηλώνω λύνω φρεσκάρω ελέγχω
present δηλών λύν φρεσκάρ ελέγχ stem of active present form
a-imperfect δήλων έλυν φρέσκαρ έλεγχ stem of active imperfect
a-dependent δηλώσ λύσ φρεσκάρ ελέγξ stem of active dependent form (giving future simple)
a-simplepast δήλωσ έλυσ φρέσκαρ έλεγξ stem of active simple past
a-imperfect-2 φρεσκάριζ stem of 2nd active imperfect
a-simplepast-2 φρεσκάρισ stem of 2nd active simple past
p-imperfect δηλων-όμουν λυν-όμουν φρεσκαριζ-όμουν ελεγχ-όμουν stem of the passive imperfect
p-dependent δηλωθ λυθ φρεσκαριστ ελεγχθ stem of the passive dependent form (giving future simple)
p-simplepast δηλώθ-ηκα λύθ-ηκα φρεσκαρίστ-ηκα ελέγχθ-ηκα stem of passive the simple past
p-dependent-2 ελεγχτ stem of 2nd passive dependent form (giving future simple)
p-simplepast-2 ελέγχτ-ηκα stem of a 2nd passive simple past
augmented Stops the augmented stem being used for imperatives. see:λύνω, augmented=1 gives you λύνε not έλυνε
alt-form Displays an alternative lemma form (see: βλάπτω with the alternative βλάφτω).
no-a-imperfect, no-a-simplepast
no-p-imperfect, no-p-simplepast
Suppress the relevant tenses.
head Text to replace the default table header.
head-extra For added comments (in brackets) to the table header (previously named "head-text").
note Provides a footnote in the table.
note1, … Provide numbered footnotes (1-5) in the table, these can refer to superscripted table cells.
cat Omit if
The model verb whose paradigm is being followed, assigns a category:
    'λύνω' → Category:Greek verbs conjugating like 'λύνω',
    'u' gives 'uncategorised', 'i' gives 'irregular'.
* The template uses the values of present, dependent, imperfect and simplepast to produce default forms.
* Each of these may be suppressed or overwritten using the parameters below:
Active:  a-imptv-imperfctv-sg a-imptv-imperfctv-pl a-imptv-perfctv-sg a-imptv-perfctv-pl
Passive:  p-imptv-imperfctv-sg p-imptv-imperfctv-pl p-imptv-perfctv-sg p-imptv-perfctv-pl
* When an alternative is wanted the complete form (ie stem+ending) should be used.
* A hyphen ("-") will give a blank cell in the table.
This form is usually absent.
The use of this may fail if p-dependent-2 from above has been used.
Participles and Perfect tenses[edit]
 p-perf-part The passive perfect participle (stem) — giving the participle and perfect tense forms
  Omitting this parameter supresses all these forms.
  eg for διαλύω:   διαλυδιαλυμένος   and   έχω διαλυμένο   and   είμαι διαλυμένος
* The following parameters may be used to provide correct, or overwrite incorrect, forms. Use the whole form, or a hyphen ("-") to give a blank cell.
* Alternatively the parameters listed in the "Direct table parameters" provide direct use to each cell in a table.
  Perfect tenses
 a-perfect-2 2nd active perfect tense forms eg: a-perfect-2=διαλυμένο → έχω διαλυμένο
 p-perfect-2 2nd passive perfect tense forms (eg εμπνέω) eg: p-perfect-2=εμπνευσμένος → είμαι εμπνευσμένος
 no-a-perf2 prevents 2nd active perfect forms being printed (use "no-a-perf2=1")
 no-p-perf2 prevents 2nd passive perfect forms being printed (use "no-p-perf2=1")
 a-pres-part-2 Active present participle   → διαλύοντας
 a-perf-part-2 Active perfect participle   → έχοντας διαλύσει
 p-pres-part-2 Passive present participle   → διαλυόμενος, -η, -ο
 p-perf-part-2 Passive perfect participle   → διαλυμένος, -η, -ο

Direct table parameters[edit]

Active voice Passive voice
Indicative mood Imperfective aspect Perfective aspect Imperfective aspect Perfective aspect
Non-past tenses Present Dependent Present Dependent
1 sg a-pres-1s a-depe-1s p-pres-1s p-depe-1s
2 sg a-pres-2s1 a-depe-2s p-pres-2s p-depe-2s
3 sg a-pres-3s a-depe-3s p-pres-3s p-depe-3s
1 pl a-pres-1p a-depe-1p p-pres-1p p-depe-1p
2 pl a-pres-2p a-depe-2p p-pres-2p p-depe-2p
3 pl a-pres-3p a-depe-3p p-pres-3p p-depe-3p
Past tenses Imperfect Simple past Imperfect Simple past
1 sg a-impf-1s a-past-1s p-impf-1s p-past-1s
2 sg a-impf-2s a-past-2s p-impf-2s p-past-2s
3 sg a-impf-3s a-past-3s p-impf-3s p-past-3s
1 pl a-impf-1p a-past-1p p-impf-1p p-past-1p
2 pl a-impf-2p a-past-2p p-impf-2p p-past-2p
3 pl a-impf-3p a-past-3p p-impf-3p p-past-3p
Future tenses Continuous Simple Continuous Simple
1 sg a-fcon-1s a-fsim-1s p-fcon-1s p-fsim-1s
2,3 sg, 1,2,3 pl a-fcon-2s a-fsim-2s p-fcon-2s p-fsim-2s
Perfect aspect Perfect aspect
Present perfect a-perfect
Past perfect a-pluperf
Future perfect a-futperf
Subjunctive mood Formed using present, dependent (for simple past) or present perfect from above with a particle (να, ας, όταν, …).
Imperative mood Imperfective aspect Perfective aspect Imperfective aspect Perfective aspect
2 sg a-impv-is a-impv-ps p-impv-is p-impv-ps
2 pl a-impv-ip a-impv-pp p-impv-ip p-impv-pp
Other forms Active voice Passive voice
Present participle a-presprt p-presprt
Perfect participle a-perfprt p-perfprt
Nonfinite form a-nonfin p-nonfin
Notes    1 note1 (this note here refers to the 2s present tense form above - παραλείπω illustrates a note in use)
 2 note2
 3 note3
 • note

Conjugation 2015[edit]

2nd conjugation[edit]

  • conjug - "switch" parameter, simple past infix (el-conj-2A templates)
  • present - present tense stem
  • past - simple past tense stem
  • future - future simple tense stem (2A-1b)
  • imperfect - imperfect tense stem (2A-1b)
  • perfect-2 - EITHER 1 for a second perfect tense OR the stem of irregular forms
  • past-2 - stem of a 2nd simple past tense stem
  • imperf-2 - 1 to depress 2nd imperfect tense form
  • alt-form - an alternative form (see: κοιτώ's alt κοιτάζω)
  • note - footnote
  • ref - (possibly temporary): the Jordanidou paradigm number
  • imperative-i-s (replaces default)
  • imperative-i-s2
  • imperative-i-s3
  • imperative-i-p (replaces default)
  • imperative-i-p2
  • imperative-i-p3
  • imperative-p-s (replaces default)
  • imperative-p-s2
  • imperative-p-s3
  • imperative-p-p (replaces default)
  • imperative-p-p2
  • imperative-p-p3
  • - i = imperfective, p = perfective
  • - s = singular, p = plural