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Old English[edit]


The origin is disputed. A phonetically exact correspondence to Old Norse bjǫrn (bear), from Proto-Germanic *bernuz (more at *berô), but the English word is never used for "bear", while the Old Norse word is never used for "warrior". While it is not implausible that the term for a wild animal could become a poetic term for a warrior, Germanic scholars have been reluctant to accept the equation. Some considered it a variant of bairn (child, offspring", hence "boy, servant), and others derived it from a Proto-Germanic *beron- (carrier) (hence "servant; man, warrior", more at baron). Celtic origin has also been considered; thus, Rhys took this to be a Germanic reflex of the Celtic title Brennus, and Bradley connected British Bernicia (Welsh brenhin, brenin).

The word has the form biorn in early Old English attestations; it survives into early Middle English as beorn and takes the variant spellings bern, berne, burn, burne, bearn, bieren, beern, beerne in later Middle English. Middle English usage often interchanges it with baron. As berne, it survives into the 16th century in Scottish dialect, but becomes indistinguishable from bairn.



beorn m (nominative plural beornas)

  1. (poetic) man, warrior
    • Biorn under beorge bordrand onswaf. (Beowulf 2559)
    • se beorn on waruþe scip gemette ("the man found a ship on the strand.", Legend of St Andrew)




  • "† berne, n.", Oxford English Dictionary, Second edition 1989; first published in New English Dictionary, 1887.