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See also: bese and besé



From Proto-Albanian *baitši, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeydʰ- (modern be). According to Lubotsky, related to an Illyrian-derived toponym Besoi. Cognate to Old Irish bés according to the Trumper, proto-Celtic word might derive from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeydʰ- instead, thus rendering the Albanian besë as a cognate and explains the relationship between them as an Albanian/Celtic isogloss.[1].


besë f (definite singular besa)

  1. pledge, word of honor
  2. (old) vow to avenge a murder
  3. (old) protection during a truce or when hosted as a guest, aegis
  4. (colloquial) religious faith, creed

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


  1. ^ Trumper, John. "Some Celto‑Albanian isoglosses and their implications." Structuring Variation in Romance Linguistics and Beyond. In honour of Leonardo M. Savoia (2018).