duine

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Afrikaans[edit]

Noun[edit]

duine

  1. plural of duin

Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish duine, from Proto-Celtic *gdonyos (human, person), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰm̥mō (earthling, human), a derivation of *dʰéǵʰōm (earth).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

duine m (genitive singular duine, nominative plural daoine)

  1. person, human being
  2. one (in reference to human beings)
    Tá ceithre pháiste aige; tá duine acu tinn.
    He has four children; one of them is sick.

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
duine dhuine nduine
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Verb[edit]

duine

  1. Alternative form of dwynen

Middle Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish duine, from Proto-Celtic *gdonyos (human, person).

Noun[edit]

duine m (genitive duini, nominative plural doíni)

  1. person

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Irish: duine
  • Manx: dooinney
  • Scottish Gaelic: duine

Mutation[edit]

Middle Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
duine duine
pronounced with /ð(ʲ)-/, later /ɣ(ʲ)-/
nduine
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *gdonyos (human, person), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰm̥mō (earthling, human), a derivation of *dʰéǵʰōm (earth) (whence also (place, spot)).

Akin to Breton den (man) and Welsh dyn (man). For the parallel semantic development of the noun for "man, human" from the cognate nominal stem for "earth", compare Latin homō (man, person), Old Lithuanian žmuõ (man) and Gothic 𐌲𐌿𐌼𐌰 (guma).

The plural doíni is suppletive, coming from a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *dʰew- (to die)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

duine m (genitive duini, nominative plural doíni)

  1. person. human being
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 17d23
      arná{m}·tomnad námmin duine sed deus
      that he should not suppose that I am a human but a god
    • c. 800–825, Diarmait, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 134d3
      Ɔ·riris-siu .i. ar·troídfe{a}-siu inna droch daíni, a Dǽ, dia n‑anduch, air is fechtnach a n‑andach mani erthroítar húa Día.
      You will bind, i.e. you will restrain the evil people, O God, from their iniquity, for their iniquity is prosperous if they are not restrained by God.

Declension[edit]

Masculine io-stem, masculine i-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative duine doíniH
Vocative duiniL doíniH
Accusative duineN doíniH
Genitive duiniL doíneN
Dative duiniuL doínib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Descendants[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
duine duine
pronounced with /ð(ʲ)-/
nduine
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]


Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish duine, from Proto-Celtic *gdonyos (human, person), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰm̥mō (earthling, human), a derivation of *dʰéǵʰōm (earth).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

duine m (genitive singular duine, plural daoine)

  1. man
  2. person, body, individual
    • 1911 (Birlinn Limited), Edward Dwelly: The Illustrated Gaelic-English Dictionary:
      Duine gun mhath gun chron, is motha a chron na a mhath.A man that's neither good nor ill is more ill than good.
  3. husband
  4. one
    Is fheudar dha duine a-riamh a dh'aithneachadh na thathar a' dèanamh le fhèin an duine.One must always know what one is doing with oneself.
    Chan eil fios aig duine a riamh.One never knows.

Mutation[edit]

Scottish Gaelic mutation
Radical Lenition
duine dhuine
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • duine” in Edward Dwelly, Faclair Gàidhlig gu Beurla le Dealbhan/The Illustrated [Scottish] Gaelic–English Dictionary, 10th edition, Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited, 1911, →ISBN.
  • Gregory Toner, Maire Ní Mhaonaigh, Sharon Arbuthnot, Dagmar Wodtko, Maire-Luise Theuerkauf, editors (2019), “duine”, in eDIL: Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language