duine

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Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish duine, from Proto-Celtic *gdonyos (human, person), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰm̥mō (earthling, human), a derivation of *dʰéǵʰōm (earth).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

duine m (genitive singular duine, nominative plural daoine)

  1. person, human being
  2. one (in reference to human beings)
    Tá ceithre pháiste aige; tá duine acu tinn.
    He has four children; one of them is sick.

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
duine dhuine nduine
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  • "duine" in Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • duine” in Dictionary of the Irish Language, Royal Irish Academy, 1913–76.

Old Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *gdonyos (human, person), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰm̥mō (earthling, human), a derivation of *dʰéǵʰōm (earth) (whence also (place, spot)).

Akin to Breton den (man) and Welsh dyn (man). For the parallel semantic development of the noun for "man, human" from the cognate nominal stem for "earth", compare Latin homō (man, person), Old Lithuanian žmuõ (man) and Gothic 𐌲𐌿𐌼𐌰 (guma).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

duine m (genitive duini, nominative plural doíni)

  1. person

Declension[edit]

Masculine io-stem, masculine i-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative duine doíniH
Vocative duiniL doíniH
Accusative duineN doíniH
Genitive duiniL doíneN
Dative duiniuL doínib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Descendants[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
duine duine
pronounced with /ð(ʲ)-/
nduine
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  • duine” in Dictionary of the Irish Language, Royal Irish Academy, 1913–76.

Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish duine, from Proto-Celtic *gdonyos (human, person), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰm̥mō (earthling, human), a derivation of *dʰéǵʰōm (earth).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

duine m (genitive singular duine, plural daoine)

  1. man
  2. person, body, individual
    • 1911 (Birlinn Limited), Edward Dwelly: The Illustrated Gaelic-English Dictionary:
      Duine gun mhath gun chron, is motha a chron na a mhath.A man that's neither good nor ill is more ill than good.
  3. husband
  4. one
    Is fheudar dha duine a-riamh a dh'aithneachadh na thathar a' dèanamh le fhèin an duine.One must always know what one is doing with oneself.
    Chan eil fios aig duine a riamh.One never knows.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Faclair Gàidhlig Dwelly Air Loidhne, Dwelly, Edward (1911), Faclair Gàidhlig gu Beurla le Dealbhan/The Illustrated [Scottish] Gaelic-English Dictionary (10th ed.), Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited, ISBN 0 901771 92 9
  • duine” in Dictionary of the Irish Language, Royal Irish Academy, 1913–76.