kalps

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Latvian[edit]

Kalpi (1)
Pīķa kalps (3)

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Old East Slavic холпь (xolpĭ, serf, slave) (cf. Russian холоп (xolop)), itself a borrowing from Turkic (or, according to some researchers, a native word, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *kel-, *skel- “offshoot, seedlings, stem”). The borrowing must have happened by the 13th century at the latest; the first mentions of this word are in 17th-century dictionaries.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Noun[edit]

kalps m (1st declension, feminine form: kalpone)

  1. farmhand, farm laborer, servant (a paid worker in a farm)
    strādāt par kalputo work as a farmhand
    muižas kalpithe mannor's laborers
    pieņemt, atlaist, algot kalpusto accept, to dismiss, to hire servants
    kalpu klētsthe servants' barn (= house)
    kalpa ļaudisfarm workers (lit. farmhand people)
    kāds kungs, tāds kalpslike lord, like servant (folk saying)
    kalpi bija laukstrādnieki, kas salīguši strādāt pie saimniekiem par algu (graudā, vēlāk arī daļēji naudā)farmhands were rural workers who were hired to work for a farmer for wages (paid in grain, later also partially in money)
  2. (figuratively) servant (a person who works for some interest or cause)
    deputāts ir tautas kalpsa congressman is a servant of the people
    dieva kalpsa servant of god (e.g., a priest)
    tumsas kalpiservants of darkness
  3. (card games) jack, knave (the card between 10 and queen, with the image of a young man)
    pīķa kalpsthe jack of spades
    kapteinis sāka dalīt kārtis, un Vilks izklaidīgi ņēma tās pretī... tur bija viens kalps un trīs dāmasthe captain began to deal the cards, and Vilks distractedly took them... there were one jack and three queens

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “kalps”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7