kulak

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See also: Kulak, kulák, and kułak

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

1877. From Russian кула́к (kulák, wealthy peasant; fist; tight-fisted person), plural кулаки́ (kulakí). Compare also Russian раскула́чивание (raskuláčivanije, dekulakization), подкула́чник (podkuláčnik, subkulak).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

kulak (plural kulaks or kulaki)

  1. (historical) A prosperous peasant in the Russian Empire or the Soviet Union, who owned land and could hire workers.
    • 2002, Christopher Hitchens, "Martin Amis: Lightness at Midnight", The Atlantic, Sep 2002:
      The “internal organs,” as the CHEKA and the GPU and the KGB used to style themselves, were asked to police the mind for heresy as much as to torture kulaks to relinquish the food they withheld from the cities.
    • 2015 February 6, Nick Gillespie, “To the Barricades, Brooklyn Yuppies!”, in The Dailey Beast[1], retrieved 20150206:
      We are the “upper middle class”, the new kulaks whose antisocial self-interest and lack of submission to the aims of the revolutionary vanguard must be extinguished.

Usage notes[edit]

During Soviet state collectivization of farming in the 1920s and 1930s the label kulak, implying “tight-fisted”, was applied pejoratively to attack land-owning peasants in general.

Synonyms[edit]

Hypernyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Quotations[edit]

References[edit]

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary: Tenth Edition 1997

Anagrams[edit]


Czech[edit]

Czech Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia cs

Etymology[edit]

From Russian кула́к (kulák, wealthy peasant; fist; tight-fisted person).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈkulak]
  • Rhymes: -ulak
  • Hyphenation: ku‧lak

Noun[edit]

kulak m anim

  1. (historical, derogatory) kulak, a prosperous peasant marked as an enemy of the people by the communist regime, especially in the time of forced collectivization (e. g. in Czechoslovakia 1948–cca 1960)
    • 2003, Jaroslav Čejka, Lidé, čas a zvířata[2], Praha: Baronet, →ISBN, page 144:
      Pan Kubrycht byl prý původně bohatý sedlák, čili – jak se v padesátých letech říkalo – kulak, kterého vyhnali z jeho statku.
      People say that Mr. Kubrycht was originally a rich farmer, or – as it was said in 1950s – a kulak, who was forced to leave his farm.

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • kulak in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • kulak in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Anagrams[edit]


Portuguese[edit]

Noun[edit]

kulak m (plural kulaks)

  1. (historical) kulak (prosperous peasant in Russia)

Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish قولاق (qulaq, ear), from Proto-Turkic *kulkak (ear). Cognate with Old Turkic 𐰸𐰆𐰞𐰴𐰴 (qulqaq).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ku.ˈɫɑk/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: ku‧lak

Noun[edit]

kulak (definite accusative kulağı, plural kulaklar)

  1. ear

Declension[edit]

Inflection
Nominative kulak
Definite accusative kulağı
Singular Plural
Nominative kulak kulaklar
Definite accusative kulağı kulakları
Dative kulağa kulaklara
Locative kulakta kulaklarda
Ablative kulaktan kulaklardan
Genitive kulağın kulakların
Possessive forms
Singular Plural
1st singular kulağım kulaklarım
2nd singular kulağın kulakların
3rd singular kulağı kulakları
1st plural kulağımız kulaklarımız
2nd plural kulağınız kulaklarınız
3rd plural kulakları kulakları

Related terms[edit]