kulak

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See also: Kulak, kulák, kułak, and Kułak

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

1877. From Russian кула́к (kulák, wealthy peasant; fist; tight-fisted person), plural кулаки́ (kulakí). Compare also Russian раскула́чивание (raskuláčivanije, dekulakization), подкула́чник (podkuláčnik, subkulak).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

kulak (plural kulaks or kulaki)

  1. (historical) A prosperous peasant in the Russian Empire or the Soviet Union, who owned land and could hire workers.
    • 2002, Christopher Hitchens, "Martin Amis: Lightness at Midnight", The Atlantic, Sep 2002:
      The “internal organs,” as the CHEKA and the GPU and the KGB used to style themselves, were asked to police the mind for heresy as much as to torture kulaks to relinquish the food they withheld from the cities.
    • 2015 February 6, Nick Gillespie, “To the Barricades, Brooklyn Yuppies!”, in The Dailey Beast[1], retrieved 20150206:
      We are the “upper middle class”, the new kulaks whose antisocial self-interest and lack of submission to the aims of the revolutionary vanguard must be extinguished.

Usage notes[edit]

During Soviet state collectivization of farming in the 1920s and 1930s the label kulak, implying “tight-fisted”, was applied pejoratively to land-owning peasants in general.

Synonyms[edit]

Hypernyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Quotations[edit]

References[edit]

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary: Tenth Edition 1997

Anagrams[edit]


Czech[edit]

Czech Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia cs

Etymology[edit]

From Russian кула́к (kulák, wealthy peasant; fist; tight-fisted person).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈkulak]
  • Rhymes: -ulak
  • Hyphenation: ku‧lak

Noun[edit]

kulak m anim

  1. (historical, derogatory) kulak, a prosperous peasant marked as an enemy of the people by the communist regime, especially in the time of forced collectivization (e. g. in Czechoslovakia 1948–cca 1960)
    • 2003, Jaroslav Čejka, Lidé, čas a zvířata[2], Praha: Baronet, →ISBN, page 144:
      Pan Kubrycht byl prý původně bohatý sedlák, čili – jak se v padesátých letech říkalo – kulak, kterého vyhnali z jeho statku.
      People say that Mr. Kubrycht was originally a rich farmer, or – as it was said in 1950s – a kulak, who was forced to leave his farm.

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • kulak in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • kulak in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Anagrams[edit]


Italian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Russian кула́к (kulák, wealthy peasant; fist; tight-fisted person).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /kuˈlak/
  • Hyphenation: ku‧làk

Noun[edit]

kulak m (plural kulaki)

  1. (historical) kulak (prosperous peasant in Russia)

References[edit]

  • kulak in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Noun[edit]

kulak m (definite singular kulaken, indefinite plural kulaker, definite plural kulakene)

  1. form removed with the spelling reform of 2005; superseded by kulakk

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Noun[edit]

kulak m (definite singular kulaken, indefinite plural kulakar, definite plural kulakane)

  1. form removed with the spelling reform of 2005; superseded by kulakk

Portuguese[edit]

Noun[edit]

kulak m (plural kulaks)

  1. (historical) kulak (prosperous peasant in Russia)

Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish قولاق(qulaq, ear), Old Anatolian Turkish قلاق(qulaq, ear), from Proto-Turkic *kulkak (ear). Cognate with Old Turkic 𐰸𐰆𐰞𐰴𐰴(q̊¹ul¹qq /qulqaq/). A possible cognate with Finnish kuulla [1][2][3]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ku.ˈɫɑk/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: ku‧lak

Noun[edit]

kulak (definite accusative kulağı, plural kulaklar)

  1. ear

Declension[edit]

Inflection
Nominative kulak
Definite accusative kulağı
Singular Plural
Nominative kulak kulaklar
Definite accusative kulağı kulakları
Dative kulağa kulaklara
Locative kulakta kulaklarda
Ablative kulaktan kulaklardan
Genitive kulağın kulakların
Possessive forms
Nominative Singular Plural
1st singular kulağım kulaklarım
2nd singular kulağın kulakların
3rd singular kulağı kulakları
1st plural kulağımız kulaklarımız
2nd plural kulağınız kulaklarınız
3rd plural kulakları kulakları
Definite accusative Singular Plural
1st singular kulağımı kulaklarımı
2nd singular kulağını kulaklarını
3rd singular kulağını kulaklarını
1st plural kulağımızı kulaklarımızı
2nd plural kulağınızı kulaklarınızı
3rd plural kulaklarını kulaklarını
Dative Singular Plural
1st singular kulağıma kulaklarıma
2nd singular kulağına kulaklarına
3rd singular kulağına kulaklarına
1st plural kulağımıza kulaklarımıza
2nd plural kulağınıza kulaklarınıza
3rd plural kulaklarına kulaklarına
Locative Singular Plural
1st singular kulağımda kulaklarımda
2nd singular kulağında kulaklarında
3rd singular kulağında kulaklarında
1st plural kulağımızda kulaklarımızda
2nd plural kulağınızda kulaklarınızda
3rd plural kulaklarında kulaklarında
Ablative Singular Plural
1st singular kulağımdan kulaklarımdan
2nd singular kulağından kulaklarından
3rd singular kulağından kulaklarından
1st plural kulağımızdan kulaklarımızdan
2nd plural kulağınızdan kulaklarınızdan
3rd plural kulaklarından kulaklarından
Genitive Singular Plural
1st singular kulağımın kulaklarımın
2nd singular kulağının kulaklarının
3rd singular kulağının kulaklarının
1st plural kulağımızın kulaklarımızın
2nd plural kulağınızın kulaklarınızın
3rd plural kulaklarının kulaklarının
Predicative forms
Singular Plural
1st singular kulağım kulaklarım
2nd singular kulaksın kulaklarsın
3rd singular kulak
kulaktır
kulaklar
kulaklardır
1st plural kulağız kulaklarız
2nd plural kulaksınız kulaklarsınız
3rd plural kulaklar kulaklardır

Related terms[edit]

  1. ^ 1799, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 4, p. 495
  2. ^ 1971, etimológiai szótár, p. 254
  3. ^ 1981, Urwörter der Menschheit: eine Archäologie der Sprache, p. 59