שבת

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Hebrew[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the root שׁ־ב־ת (sh-b-t), forming words related to rest. Recent research suggests Akkadian [script needed] (šapattu, the middle day of the month) as a possible ultimate origin.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

שַׁבָּת (shabátf (plural indefinite form שַׁבָּתוֹת)

  1. Shabbat, Sabbath; weekly day of rest
    • בראשית רבה, יז ה
      רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר: ג׳ נוֹבְלוֹת הֵן: נוֹבֶלֶת מִיתָה שֵׁינָה, נוֹבֶלֶת נְבוּאָה חֲלוֹם, נוֹבֶלֶת הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא שַׁבָּת.
  2. Saturday
  3. (archaic) week (Talmudical Hebrew)

Verb[edit]

שָׁבַת (shavát) (pa'ál construction)

  1. to stop working, to rest
    • Genesis 2:2-3, with translation of the Jewish Publication Society:
      • וַיְכַל אֱלֹהִים בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּשְׁבֹּת בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה׃
        וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ כִּי בוֹ שָׁבַת מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים לַעֲשׂוֹת׃
        vay'khál 'elohím bayóm hash'vi'i m'lakhto 'asher 'asa vayishbot bayom hash'vi'i mikol-m'lakhto 'asher 'asa.
        vay'varekh 'elohim 'et-yom hash'vi'i vay'kadesh 'oto ki vo shavat mikol-m'lakhto 'asher-bara 'elohim la'asot.
        And on the seventh day God finished His work which He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made.
        And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it; because that in it He rested from all His work which God in creating had made.
  2. to go on strike

Descendants[edit]


Yiddish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Hebrew שַׁבָּת (shabát).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

שבת (shabesm, plural שבתים (shabosem)

  1. Saturday
  2. Sabbath, Shabbat

See also[edit]