Appendix:Old French adjectives

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Old French is a Romance language, and hence inherited a lot of its grammatical structure from Late and Vulgar Latin.

Old French adjectives have three genders, two numbers and two cases. Regular Old French adjectives follow a similar declension pattern to modern French ones.

Regular adjectives[edit]

The masculine oblique singular form is considered the lemma form, to which is added an -s for the masculine nominative singular and the masculine oblique plural, an -e to the feminine nominative and oblique singulars and -es to the feminine nominative and oblique plurals. The neuter is invariable.



Epicene adjectives, notably those ending in -e have a slightly different declension to avoid the -ee ending. The masculine nominative singular does also not necessarily take an s.

Irregular adjectives[edit]

Some slightly irregular cases include the following:

  • -ts is replaced by -z (pronounced [ts])


  • For adjectives ending in -f, -f becomes -ve. Sometimes -fs becomes -s to ease the pronunciation


  • Adjectives with a masculine oblique singular ending in -s cannot take another -s. Adjectives ending in -z or -x can also not take -s to avoid the -zs and -xs endings.