struggle

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English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English struglen, stroglen, strogelen, of obscure origin. Cognate with Scots strugil (to struggle, grapple, contend). Perhaps from a variant of *strokelen, *stroukelen ( > English stroll), from Middle Dutch struyckelen ("to stumble, trip, falter"; > Modern Dutch struikelen), the frequentative form of Old Dutch *strūkon (to stumble), from Proto-Germanic *strūkōną, *strūkēną (to be stiff), from Proto-Indo-European *strug-, *ster- (to be stiff; to bristle, strut, stumble, fall), related to Middle Low German strûkelen ("to stumble"; > Low German strükeln), Old High German strūhhēn, strūhhōn ("to stumble, trip, tumble, go astray"; > Modern German strauchen, straucheln).

Alternative etymology derives the base of struggle from Old Norse strúgr (arrogance, pride, spitefulness, ill-will), from Proto-Germanic *strūkaz (stiff, rigid), ultimately from the same Proto-Indo-European root above, which would make it cognate with Swedish dialectal strug (contention, strife, discord), Norwegian stru (obstinate, unruly), Danish struende (reluctantly), Scots strug (difficulty, perplexity, a laborious task).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Noun[edit]

struggle (plural struggles)

  1. Strife, contention, great effort.
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 23, The Mirror and the Lamp:
      The struggle with ways and means had recommenced, more difficult now a hundredfold than it had been before, because of their increasing needs. Their income disappeared as a little rivulet that is swallowed by the thirsty ground. He worked night and day to supplement it.

Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

struggle (third-person singular simple present struggles, present participle struggling, simple past and past participle struggled)

  1. To strive, to labour in difficulty, to fight (for or against), to contend.
    • 2011 October 1, Tom Fordyce, “Rugby World Cup 2011: England 16-12 Scotland”, BBC Sport:
      England were ponderous with ball in hand, their runners static when taking the ball and their lines obvious, while their front row struggled badly in the scrum.
    • 2013 June 28, Joris Luyendijk, “Our banks are out of control”, The Guardian Weekly, volume 189, number 3, page 21: 
      Seeing the British establishment struggle with the financial sector is like watching an alcoholic who still resists the idea that something drastic needs to happen for him to turn his life around.
    During the centuries, the people of Ireland struggled constantly to assert their right to govern themselves.
  2. To strive, or to make efforts, with a twisting, or with contortions of the body.
    She struggled to escape from her assailant's grasp.

Usage notes[edit]

Translations[edit]