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  • Contractions.



  1. Had (marking the pluperfect tense).
  2. (some dialects) Had, possessed.
    • Polly Von
      She'd her apron wrapped about her and he took her for a swan.
  3. Would.
    I’d like to help, but I have no time.
  4. (colloquial) Did.
    Hey, where’d everybody go? Why’d they take off?

Related terms[edit]



  1. (archaic) Traditionally common English past tense indicator, largely replaced by -ed.
    • Shakespeare - Hast thou mark’d the dawn of next?
  2. Used to form the past tense of some verbs that are in the form of numerals, letters, and abbreviations, especially in online communication. Compare ’s.
    • "The eval function also compromises the security of your application, because it grants too much authority to the eval’d text." -JavaScript: The Good Parts, Douglas Crockford
    • Google Plus - You +1’d this.
    • I just lol’d but then stopped and realized this wasn’t funny.

Usage notes[edit]

  • In most dialects, -’d is only used to mark the pluperfect tense (“I’d done something.”, “I had done something.”), and not to signify possession in the past (“I had something.”). Some dialects, however, use -’d for both.