καλός

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From earlier καλϝός (kalwós), from Proto-Indo-European *kal-wo-s, form of *kal- (beautiful).

Cognate to Sanskrit कल्य (kalya), Sanskrit कल्याण (kalyā́ṇa), Albanian kolmë.

Pronunciation[edit]

In most cases:

 

In epic poetry and in some other cases:

 

Adjective[edit]

καλός (kalósm (feminine καλή, neuter καλόν); first/second declension

  1. beautiful, lovely
  2. good, quality, useful
  3. good, right, moral, virtuous, noble

Usage notes[edit]

In epic and early iambic poetry, this word almost always has a long (heavy) first syllable. This was originally a consequence of the digamma — καλϝός (kalwós) — which resulted in a syllable ending in a consonant: /kal.ˈwos/. But, once the digamma was lost, the heavy syllable was reanalyzed as being the consequence of a long vowel in the first syllable: κᾱλός (kālós).

  • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 1.96–97:
    ὣς εἰποῦσ’ ὑπὸ ποσσὶν ἐδήσατο κᾱλὰ [= καλϝά] πέδῑλα,
    ἀμβρόσια χρῡ́σεια,
    hṑs eipoûs’ hupò possìn edḗsato kālà [= kalwá] pédīla,
    ambrósia khrū́seia,
    So saying, she tied beautiful immortal golden sandals under her feet,

In lyric poetry and tragedy, the α is short; in elegiac, epigrammatic, and bucolic poets it is variable.

Inflection[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Greek: καλός (kalós, good)

References[edit]


Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek κᾰλός (beautiful, morally beautiful, of good quality), from Proto-Indo-European *kal-wo-s, form of *kal- (beautiful).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

καλός (kalósm (feminine καλή, neuter καλό)

  1. good
    Antonym: κακός (kakós)
  2. nice, likeable

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

καλός (kalósm (plural καλοί)

  1. the good man
    Οι καλοί θα πάνε στον Παράδεισο.
    Oi kaloí tha páne ston Parádeiso.
    The good will go to Heaven.
  2. goodie, goody
  3. sweetheart

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ καλός in Λεξικό της κοινής νεοελληνικής [Dictionary of Standard Modern Greek], 1998, by the "Triantafyllidis" Foundation.