καλός

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From earlier καλϝός (kalwós), from Proto-Indo-European *kal-wo-s, form of *kal- (beautiful).

Cognate to Sanskrit कल्य (kalya), Sanskrit कल्याण (kalyā́ṇa), Albanian kolmë.

Pronunciation[edit]

In most cases:

 

In epic poetry and in some other cases:

 

Adjective[edit]

καλός (kalósm (feminine καλή, neuter καλόν); first/second declension

  1. beautiful, lovely
  2. good, quality, useful
  3. good, right, moral, virtuous, noble

Usage notes[edit]

In epic and early iambic poetry, this word almost always has a long (heavy) first syllable. This was originally a consequence of the digamma — καλϝός (kalwós) — which resulted in a syllable ending in a consonant: /kal.ˈwos/. But, once the digamma was lost, the heavy syllable was reanalyzed as being the consequence of a long vowel in the first syllable: κᾱλός (kālós).

  • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 1.96–97:
    ὣς εἰποῦσ’ ὑπὸ ποσσὶν ἐδήσατο κᾱλὰ [= καλϝά] πέδῑλα,
    ἀμβρόσια χρῡ́σεια,
    hṑs eipoûs’ hupò possìn edḗsato kālà [= kalwá] pédīla,
    ambrósia khrū́seia,
    So saying, she tied beautiful immortal golden sandals under her feet,

In lyric poetry and tragedy, the α is short; in elegiac, epigrammatic, and bucolic poets it is variable.

Inflection[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Greek: καλός (kalós, good)

References[edit]


Greek[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek κᾰλός (beautiful, morally beautiful, of good quality).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

καλός (kalósm (feminine καλή, neuter καλό)

  1. good
    Antonym: κακός (kakós)
  2. nice, likeable

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

καλός (kalósm (plural καλοί)

  1. the good man
    Οι καλοί θα πάνε στον Παράδεισο.Oi kaloí tha páne ston Parádeiso.The good will go to Heaven.
  2. goodie, goody
  3. sweetheart

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ καλός in Λεξικό της κοινής νεοελληνικής [Dictionary of Standard Modern Greek], 1998, by the "Triantafyllidis" Foundation.