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From Proto-Indo-Iranian *wŕ̥ka- ‎(wolf), *urka- (compare Avestan 𐬬𐬆𐬵𐬭𐬐𐬀 ‎(vəhrka), Old Persian 𐎺𐎼𐎣 ‎(varka), Persian گرگ ‎(gorg)), from Proto-Indo-European *wĺ̥kʷos ‎(wolf) (compare Latin lupus, Ancient Greek λύκος ‎(lúkos), Lithuanian vilkas, Old Church Slavonic влькъ ‎(vlĭkŭ)). Native grammarians etymologize it as "the tearer" and connect it to root √vrasc, compare वृक्ण ‎(vṛkṇa).


वृक ‎(vṛ́kam

  1. wolf; dog; jackal
    • RV 1.183.4a
      मा वां वर्को मा वर्कीरा दधर्षीन मा परि वर्क्तमुतमाति धक्तम
      mā vāṃ vṛko mā vṛkīrā dadharṣīn mā pari varktamutamāti dhaktam
      Let not the wolf, let not the she-wolf harm you. Forsake me not, nor pass me by or others.
  2. crow; owl
  3. thief; kshatriya
  4. plough
  5. thunderbolt
  6. moon; sun
  7. (botany) a kind of plant (= बक ‎(baka))
  8. the resin of Pinus longifolia, now Pinus palustris


Proper noun[edit]

वृक ‎(Vṛ́kam

  1. name of an Asura
  2. name of a son of Krishna
  3. name of a king
  4. name of a son of Ruruka (or Bharuka)
  5. name Prithu
  6. name of a son of Shura
  7. name of a son of Vatsaka
  8. (in the plural) name of a people and a country (belonging to मध्यदेश ‎(madhya-deśa)) (compare वार्केण्य ‎(vārkeṇya))

Related terms[edit]



  • Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1898) A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 1008
  • Arthur A. Macdonell, A practical Sanskrit dictionary with transliteration, accentuation, and etymological analysis throughout, London: Oxford University Press, 1893, page 294
  • Horace Hayman Wilson, A dictionary in Sanscrit and English, 2nd ed., Calcutta: Education Press, Circular Road, 1832, page 700
  • Carl Capeller, A Sanskrit-English dictionary, based upon the St. Petersburg lexicons, London: Luzac & Co., 1891, page 516