ძმა

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Georgian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Georgian ძმაჲ (ʒmay), from earlier *ძამა (*ʒama), from *ძამან (*ʒaman). The vowel is believed to have been present in the stem, because of the Svan and Mingrelian cognates. This vowel should have been (a), because Laz-Mingrelian vowels (ი and უ) correspond to Georgian (a). Also, note ძამ-ა (ʒam-a) and ძამ-იკო (ʒam-iḳo) where the vowel has not dropped out. Accordingly, Fähnrich reconstructs Proto-Kartvelian *ʒ₁am-, while Klimov reconstructs *ʒ₁ma-.

Also, Mingrelian ჯიმა (ǯima) and Laz ჯუმა (ǯuma) forms have, as their plural forms, ჯიმ-ალ-ეფ (ǯim-al-ep) and ჯუმ-ალ-ეფ (ǯum-al-ep), but the Mingrelian–Laz suffix for pluralization is -ეფ (-ep). Therefore, in the plural forms of these words, the consonant (l) is restored, which suggests that, originally, this consonant might have been present in the singular. Cognate with Svan ჯჷმილ (ǯəmil) ჯიმილ (ǯimil), ჯუმილ (ǯumil), Mingrelian ჯიმა (ǯima) and Laz ჯუმა (ǯuma).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ძმა (ʒma) (plural ძმები)

  1. brother

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Shota Dzidziguri, (1988), The life of the word
  • Klimov, Georgij A. (1998) Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages (Trends in linguistics. Documentation; 16), New York, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, page 288
  • Fähnrich, Heinz (2007) Kartwelisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch [Kartvelian Etymological Dictionary] (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.18) (in German), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 600
  • penrixi (Fähnrich), hainc; sarǯvelaʒe, zurab (2000) kartvelur enata eṭimologiuri leksiḳoni [Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages] (in Georgian), Tbilisi: Tbilisi Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani State University Press, page 619
  • abulaʒe, ilia (1973), “ძმა”, in ʒveli kartuli enis leksiḳoni (masalebi) [Dictionary of Old Georgian (Materials)] (in Georgian), Tbilisi: Metsniereba, page 526