ძმა

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Georgian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Georgian ძმაჲ ‎(ʒmay), from earlier *ძამა ‎(*ʒama), from *ძამან ‎(*ʒaman). The vowel is believed to have been present in the stem, because of the Svan and Mingrelian cognates. This vowel should have been ‎(a), because Laz-Mingrelian vowels (ი and უ) correspond to Georgian ‎(a). Also, note ძამ-ა ‎(ʒam-a) and ძამ-იკო ‎(ʒam-iḳo) where the vowel has not dropped out. Accordingly, Fähnrich reconstructs Proto-Kartvelian *ʒ₁am-, while Klimov reconstructs *ʒ₁ma-.

Also, Mingrelian ჯიმა ‎(ǯima) and Laz ჯუმა ‎(ǯuma) forms have, as their plural forms, ჯიმ-ალ-ეფ ‎(ǯim-al-ep) and ჯუმ-ალ-ეფ ‎(ǯum-al-ep), but the Mingrelian–Laz suffix for pluralization is -ეფ ‎(-ep). Therefore, in the plural forms of these words, the consonant ‎(l) is restored, which suggests that, originally, this consonant might have been present in the singular. Cognate with Svan ჯჷმილ ‎(ǯəmil) ჯიმილ ‎(ǯimil), ჯუმილ ‎(ǯumil), Mingrelian ჯიმა ‎(ǯima) and Laz ჯუმა ‎(ǯuma).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ძმა ‎(ʒma) ‎(plural ძმები)

  1. brother

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Shota Dzidziguri, (1988), The life of the word
  • Klimov, Georgij A. (1998) Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages (Trends in linguistics. Documentation; 16), New York, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, page 288
  • Fähnrich, Heinz (2007) Kartwelisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch [Kartvelian Etymological Dictionary] (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.18) (in German), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 600
  • penrixi (Fähnrich), hainc; sarǯvelaʒe, zurab (2000) kartvelur enata eṭimologiuri leksiḳoni [Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages] (in Georgian), Tbilisi: Tbilisi Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani State University Press, page 619
  • abulaʒe, ilia (1973), “ძმა”, in ʒveli kartuli enis leksiḳoni (masalebi) [Dictionary of Old Georgian (Materials)] (in Georgian), Tbilisi: Metsniereba, page 526