Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kʷer-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*kʷer-[1][2]

  1. to do
  2. to make
  3. to build

Synonyms[edit]

  • *yeh₁- (to do, make; act vigorously)
  • *h₂er- (to prepare, make ready)

Derived terms[edit]


  • *kʷér-t ~ *kʷr-ént (root aorist)[1][3]
  • *kʷér-(h₁)s-eti ~ *kʷér-(h₁)s-onti ((h₁)se-desiderative)[1]
    • Anatolian: [Term?]
      • Hittite: [script needed] (ku-e-er-šu-un, 1sg.pret.act.), [script needed] (kur-ša-a-i, to cut off, 2sg.imp.act.)
  • *kʷér-kʷor- ~ *kʷér-kʷr̥- (secondary intensive)[1]
  • *kʷí-kʷr̥-(h₁)s-eti ~ *kʷí-kʷr̥-(h₁)s-onti (reduplicated (h₁)se-desiderative)[1]
    • Indo-Iranian: *číkr̥šati
      • Indo-Aryan: [Term?]
        • Indo-Aryan: [Term?] (cíkīrṣati)
  • *kʷor-éye-ti ~ *kʷor-éy-onti (éye-causative)[1]
  • *kʷ-kʷr̥s-eti ~ *kʷ-kʷr̥s-onti[3]
    • Anatolian: [Term?]
      • Hittite: [script needed] (ku-kur-ša-an-t-), Hittite: [script needed] (ku-gur-ša-an-t-, to cut up, to mutilate, part.)
  • *kʷr̥-néw-ti ~ *kʷr̥-nw-énti (néw-present)[1]
  • *kʷr̥-sḱ-éti ~ *kʷr̥-sḱ-ónti (sḱe-present)[1]
    • Anatolian: [Term?]
      • Hittite: [script needed] (kuraski[zzi], 3sg.), [script needed] (kureskanzi, 3pl.)
  • *kʷér-mn̥ ~ *kʷr̥-méns
  • *kʷér-ōr
  • *kʷór-o-s
    • Indo-Iranian: *kā́ras
      • Iranian: *kā́rah
        • Old Persian: [script needed] (*kāra)
          • Middle Persian: kʾl (kār, work, deed, affair)
            • Persian: کار (kār, work)
  • *kʷér-tis ~ *kʷr̥-téy-s
  • *kʷér-tu-s ~ *kʷr̥-téw-s
    • Celtic: *kʷritus
      • Old Irish: cruth (form)
      • Welsh: pryd (form, time), prydaf (compose poetry, versify)
Unsorted formations

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*ker-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-89500-219-4, page 391
  2. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997) Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 362
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “kuer-zi”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-16092-7, pages 486-487
  4. 4.0 4.1 Derksen, Rick (2015), “kėrai”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 27898 1, page 238