Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/ǵʰéyōm

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From *ǵʰey- (winter) +‎ *-ōm.

Noun[edit]

*ǵʰéyōm f[2]

  1. winter
  2. year (as a measure of time)
    Synonyms: *wétos, *yóh₁r̥
  3. frost, snow
    Synonyms: *snígʷʰs, *snóygʷʰos

Inflection[edit]

Athematic, amphikinetic
singular
nominative *ǵʰéyōm
genitive *ǵʰimés
singular dual plural
nominative *ǵʰéyōm
vocative *ǵʰéyom
accusative *ǵʰéyōm
genitive *ǵʰimés
ablative *ǵʰimés
dative *ǵʰiméy
locative *ǵʰyém, *ǵʰyémi
instrumental *ǵʰiméh₁

Derived terms[edit]

  • *ǵʰ(e)i-m-ḗr or *ǵʰéy-m-r̥[3][4]
    • *ǵʰeym-er-i(H)nó-s
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: ձմեռն (jmeṙn) (from acc.sg. *ǵʰim-ér-m) (see there for further descendants)
    • Hellenic: *kʰímər
  • *ǵʰeym-eh₂
    • Balto-Slavic: *źeimā́ˀ (see there for further descendants)
  • *ǵʰyem-os
    • Celtic: *gyemos (see there for further descendants)
  • *-ǵʰim-os (years old, literally winters old) (often as a second member of compound adjectives)

Descendants[edit]

  • Anatolian: [Term?]
  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: ձիւն (jiwn, snow) (from gen.sg. *ǵʰim-ós)[5] (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *gōį̄
    • Old Norse: gói (late winter)
  • Indo-Iranian: *ȷ́ʰimás (from gen.sg. *ǵʰim-ós) (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic: *kʰiṓn (snow)
    • Ancient Greek: χιών (khiṓn) (see there for further descendants)
  • Italic: *hiom-

See also[edit]

Seasons in Proto-Indo-European · [Term?] (layout · text)
*wósr̥ (spring) *semh₂- (summer) *(s)h₁es- (autumn) *ǵʰéyōm (winter)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, § 294.1
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) , “hiems”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  3. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1620
  4. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) , “jmeṙn”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 436–337
  5. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) , “jiwn”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 434–435