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See also: clino- and -clino



clino m (plural clini)

  1. (especially in combination) cline



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From Proto-Italic *kleināō, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱley-, from *ḱel- (to incline) +‎ *-éyti (*éy-present suffix). Although clearly a nasal present, a nasal present of Proto-Indo-European date would be *ḱl̥-n-i-, which would not give the attested Latin form. According to De Vaan[1], the nasal present was re-formed as *ḱli-n- in pre-Italic, a change shared also by other Indo-European languages. The long vowel could be by analogy with the perfect, and may be of Italic date.



clīnō (present infinitive clīnāre, perfect active clīnāvī, supine clīnātum); first conjugation

  1. (rare, nonstandard except as past participle) I bend, incline
    • 1st century BC, Titus Lucretius Carus; in: De rerum natura libri sex: quibus interpretationem et notas addidit Thomas Creech, collegii omnium animarum olim socius. Accedunt variae lectiones IV. edd. antiquissimarum necnon annotationes R. Bentleii, Oxonii, e typographeo Clarendoniano, 1818, page 85f.:
      Quare etiam atque etiam paullum clinare necesse 'st
      Corpora, nec plus quam minimum, ne fingere motus
      Obliquos videamur, et id res vera refutet.
      (In note 243 to this quote the editor clarifies: “Alii, inclinare; sed quis clinare rejiceret, qui clinamen, v. 292. admittit?”)
    • 1687, Jean-Jacques Magnet, Pharmacopoea Schroedero-Hoffmanniana illustrataet aucta, p. 306:
      Optime est Botritis, densa, modice grauis, & in laevitatem magis clinans […]
      (please add an English translation of this quote)

Usage notes[edit]

  • In Classical Latin, this is only found with certainty as a past participle clīnātus.
  • Some older editions of classical texts seem to attest various inflected forms of this verb (clīnāre (Lucretius), clīnāvit (Petronius), ... ) which seem to have been corrected to different forms (prefixed, or to different words altogether) in modern editions.
  • In New Latin, the word is very rarely found, possibly as a back-formation from the prefixed forms.


   Conjugation of clīnō (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present clīnō clīnās clīnat clīnāmus clīnātis clīnant
imperfect clīnābam clīnābās clīnābat clīnābāmus clīnābātis clīnābant
future clīnābō clīnābis clīnābit clīnābimus clīnābitis clīnābunt
perfect clīnāvī clīnāvistī clīnāvit clīnāvimus clīnāvistis clīnāvērunt, clīnāvēre
pluperfect clīnāveram clīnāverās clīnāverat clīnāverāmus clīnāverātis clīnāverant
future perfect clīnāverō clīnāveris clīnāverit clīnāverimus clīnāveritis clīnāverint
passive present clīnor clīnāris, clīnāre clīnātur clīnāmur clīnāminī clīnantur
imperfect clīnābar clīnābāris, clīnābāre clīnābātur clīnābāmur clīnābāminī clīnābantur
future clīnābor clīnāberis, clīnābere clīnābitur clīnābimur clīnābiminī clīnābuntur
perfect clīnātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect clīnātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect clīnātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present clīnem clīnēs clīnet clīnēmus clīnētis clīnent
imperfect clīnārem clīnārēs clīnāret clīnārēmus clīnārētis clīnārent
perfect clīnāverim clīnāverīs clīnāverit clīnāverīmus clīnāverītis clīnāverint
pluperfect clīnāvissem clīnāvissēs clīnāvisset clīnāvissēmus clīnāvissētis clīnāvissent
passive present clīner clīnēris, clīnēre clīnētur clīnēmur clīnēminī clīnentur
imperfect clīnārer clīnārēris, clīnārēre clīnārētur clīnārēmur clīnārēminī clīnārentur
perfect clīnātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect clīnātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present clīnā clīnāte
future clīnātō clīnātō clīnātōte clīnantō
passive present clīnāre clīnāminī
future clīnātor clīnātor clīnantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives clīnāre clīnāvisse clīnātūrum esse clīnārī clīnātum esse clīnātum īrī
participles clīnāns clīnātūrus clīnātus clīnandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
clīnandī clīnandō clīnandum clīnandō clīnātum clīnātū

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


  • Italian: chinare
  • Old French: cliner
  • Piedmontese: chiné


  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[1], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  • clino in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • clino in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette