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See also: pæne





Possibly from the same root as patior (to suffer); this may be Proto-Indo-European *peh₂-(i)- (to hurt), but its standard reconstruction as *peh₁-(i)- (or *peh₁y-[1]) creates phonetic problems for the Latin.[2] So, the etymology is unresolved.

The original meaning was likely “lacking, missing” (> “falling short”), as preserved in the related words paeniteō (to cause dissatisfaction/regret) and paenūria (shortage).[2]





paene (not comparable)

  1. almost, nearly
    Synonyms: prope, fermē, ferē, iū̆xtā
  2. (with negative) scarcely, hardly, barely (ex: paene incredibilia)

Derived terms



  • >? Aromanian: pãnã, pãn
  • >? Romanian: până
  • English: pene-


  1. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*peh₁i̯-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 459–460
  2. 2.0 2.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “paene”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 439
  • paene”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • paene”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • paene in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • graphic depiction: rerum sub aspectum paene subiectio (De Or. 3. 53. 202)
    • to almost lose one's reason from excess of joy: nimio gaudio paene desipere
  • paene in Ramminger, Johann (2016 July 16 (last accessed)) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016
  • Julius Pokorny (1959), Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, in 3 vols, Bern, München: Francke Verlag