stopień

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Old Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *stepenь. The change of ste- -> sto- is from association with stopa. First attested in the middle of the 15th century.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): (10th–15th CE) /stɔpjɛːɲ/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /stɔpjeɲ/

Noun[edit]

stopień m ?

  1. stair (a single step in a staircase)
    • Middle of the 15th century, Rozmyślanie o żywocie Pana Jezusa[1], page 13:
      Czczyenye o tem, yze dzyevycza Marya... vyedzona do Ierusalem a thesch o tem, kako pyatnasczye stopyeyn v tego kosczyola, na ktore bez pomoczy wstąpyla
      [Czcienie o tem, iże dziewica Maryja... wiedziona do Jerusalem a też o tem, kako piętnaście stopień u tego kościoła, na ktore bez pomocy wstąpiła]
    • 1901 [1471], Materiały i Prace Komisji Językowej Akademii Umiejętności w Krakowie, volume V, page 7:
      Stopyen gradum (Habacuc... stat super custodiam suam et figit gradum super munitionem Prol)
      [Stopień gradum (Habacuc... stat super custodiam suam et figit gradum super munitionem Prol)]
  2. foot (unit of measure approximately 33 centimeters long)
    • 1858 [c. 1408], “Wyroki sądów miejskich czyli ortyle [Urban court rulings i.e. "Ortyls"]”, in Wacław Aleksander Maciejowski, editor, Historia prawodawstw słowiańskich [History of Slavic lawmaking], volume 6, page 100:
      Ma-ly począcz od szwey polowycze murv trzy stopy kopacz, czyly ma poczacz od... polowycze mvrv szwego sząszyada kopacz trzy stopyenye (trium passuum)?
      [Ma-li począć od swej połowice muru trzy stopy kopać, czy-li ma począć od... połowice muru swego sąsiada kopać trzy stopienie (trium passuum)?]
  3. degree (the amount that an entity possesses a certain property; relative intensity, extent)
    • 1874-1891 [1454], Rozprawy i Sprawozdania z Posiedzeń Wydziału Filologicznego Akademii Umiejętności, volume XLVII, page 353:
      Fides huius reguli triplicem gradum, stopyen, habuit, ... scilicet inicium, incrementum, id est medium vlg. posrzodek, et perfeccionem
      [Fides huius reguli triplicem gradum, stopień, habuit, ... scilicet inicium, incrementum, id est medium vlg. pośrzodek, et perfeccionem]

Descendants[edit]

  • Polish: stopień
  • Silesian: stopiyń

References[edit]

Polish[edit]

Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pl

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old Polish stopień.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

stopień m inan (abbreviation st.)

  1. (countable) stair (a single step in a staircase)
    Schody na wieżę mają 170 stopni.The stairs to the tower have 170 steps.
    Uważaj na stopień w połowie korytarza.Mind the step halfway down the corridor.
  2. (countable) degree, rank, level (place in a systemized hierarchy)
    Synonym: szczebel
    1. (countable, military) rank (a hierarchical level in an organization such as the military)
      Po powrocie z misji zagranicznej został awansowany do stopnia kapitana.After returning from a foreign deployment, he was promoted to the rank of captain.
    2. (education, formal) title, degree
      Uczelnia ma akredytację do nadawania stopnia doktora nauk medycznych.The university is accredited to award the title of M.D.
  3. (uncountable) degree (the amount that an entity possesses a certain property; relative intensity, extent)
    Synonyms: poziom, szczebel
    W jakim stopniu zmiana trenera wpłynęła na wyniki drużyny?To what degree were the team's results affected by the change of coach?
  4. (countable, education) mark, grade, score (review of performance) [+ z (genitive) = in what subject]
    W szkole zawsze miałam dobre stopnie.I always had good grades at school.
  5. (countable, physics) degree (a unit of measurement of temperature on any of several scales, such as Celsius or Fahrenheit)
    Jutro ma być dwanaście stopni.It's supposed to be twelve degrees tomorrow.
  6. (countable, geometry) degree (a unit of measurement of angle equal to 1360 of a circle's circumference)
    Ta trasa nie jest zbyt trudna, ma nachylenie mniej niż 30 stopni.This route is not very hard, it has a slope of less than 30 degrees.
  7. (countable, linguistics, grammar) degree of comparison (a form of an adjective that indicates a different degree of the attribute the adjective denotes; like the positive, comparative and superlative forms)
  8. (countable, music) step (the interval between two contiguous degrees of the scale)
  9. (countable, geography) degree (a unit of measurement of latitude and longitude which together identify a location on the Earth's surface)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

adjective
nouns
proverb
verbs

Related terms[edit]

adverb

Trivia[edit]

According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), stopień is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 93 times in scientific texts, 50 times in news, 71 times in essays, 19 times in fiction, and 9 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 242 times, making it the 223rd most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990), “stopień”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language] (in Polish), volume 2, Kraków; Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 563

Further reading[edit]