For expressing general or gnomic statements, wnn is used in the perfective, unlike other verbs, which are used in the imperfective for this function.
As wnn has no perfect form, it uses the perfective in situations where the perfect might otherwise be expected.
Existential clauses are formed with wnn in the perfective, typically beginning with jw wn for positive existential clauses or nn wn for negative existential clauses. The negative can also be introduced with the terminative nj wnt (usually in dependent clauses) or jwt wnt (usually in noun clauses). Yes-no questions about existence are generally introduced with jn jw wn.
When wnn is used in an inflected form of the suffix conjugation or as a verbal adjective, it can effectively make adverbial predicates (including verbs in the stative) in its clause have the meaning or function of that inflected form, e.g. wn in the subjunctive can give an adverbial predicate a subjunctive meaning or function. Thus, it also allows them to form:
- causatives with rḏj, by having a subjunctive wn be the object of rḏj with a following adverbial/stative predicate.
- the protasis of a conditional sentence, by having a prospective wnn follow jr with a following adverbial/stative predicate.
|infinitive||negatival complement||complementary infinitive1||singular||plural|
|stative stem||periphrastic imperfective2||periphrastic prospective2|
|aspect / mood||active||contingent|
|aspect / mood||active|
|aspect / mood||relative (incl. nominal / emphatic) forms||participles|
||wn, wnw5, wny5
|imperfective||wnn, wnny, wnnw5
||wnn, wnnj6, wnny6
5 Only in the masculine singular.
6 Only in the masculine.
7 Only in the feminine.
8 wn before suffix pronouns.
9 Only common starting with New Kingdom texts.
- Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, revised second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-74144-6, page 165, 262, 280–284, 293–294, 310, 314–317, 345, 367
- Erman, Adolf; Grapow, Hermann (1926-1961) Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, ISBN 3050022647