sauss

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *sausas (perhaps from Proto-Balto-Slavic *saušas)[1], from Proto-Indo-European *saus-, *sus- (dry), maybe from the stem *seu-, *sū-, *su- (juice, liquid; to squeeze juice; to suck) (whence also Latvian sūkt (to suck), q.v.), either with an additional s or reduplicated. The meaning change was probably “squeezed (for juice), sucked” > “without (juice, liquid)” > “dry.” Cognates include Lithuanian saũsas, Old Prussian sausā (accusative; ā < an), Proto-Slavic *suxъ (Old Church Slavonic соухъ (suxŭ), Russian сухой (suxój), Belarusian сухі (suxí), Ukrainian сухий (suxýj), Bulgarian сух (suh), Czech suchý, Polish suchy), Sanskrit शुष्कः (śuṣkaḥ) (< [script?] (*suṣk-)), Ancient Greek αὖος (aûos) (< *sausos), Latin sūdus (dry, sunny) (< *susdos), Ossetian сусæн (susæn, dry month).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

sauss (def. sausais, comp. sausāks, sup. vissausākais; adv. sausi)

  1. dry (containing (relatively) little or no liquid, moisture, vapor; whose surface has (relatively) little or no liquid, moisture)
    sausas smiltisdry sand
    sausa malkadry firewood
    sausas lapasdry leaves
    sauss zarsdry branch, twig
    sauss sniegs, gaiss, tvaiksdry snow, air, steam
    sausas lūpasdry lips
    sausa ādadry skin
    sausi matidry hair (= insufficiently nourished)
    varbūt pa ceļam gadīsies kāds šķūnītis... varētu ielīst siltā, sausā sienā — maybe on the way there is some little barn... one could crawl into warm, dry hay
    acīs nemanīja asaru; šausmas bija acis darījušas sausas — in (their) eyes no tears could be found; terror made (their) eyes dry
    abiem mutes bija sausas, un viņi pārtrauca sarunas, lai mazliet sakrātu siekalas uz mēles — both (men) had dry mouths, and they stopped the conversation to save some saliva on their tongues
  2. dry (which has lost the liquid or moisture that it previously had)
    sauss dīķisdry pond
    sausa akadry well
    katls izvārījies sauss — the kettle has boiled dry
    noslaucīt galdu sausu — to wipe the table dry
    upe palika tik sausa, ka tajā varēja atrast mazāko akmeni — the river stayed so dry that one could find the smallest stones in it
    kapteiņa puķu odekolona pudelīte ir sausa — the captain's little flower cologne bottle is dry (= totally empty)
  3. (usually definite forms) dry (containing less liquid, moisture than usual, than other comparable items)
    sausā barībadry food
    sausais raugsdry yeast
    sausais piensdried milk
    sausais spirtsdry alcohol
    sausais ledusdry ice (solid CO₂)
    sausais vīnsdry wine (prepared without adding alcohol or sugar)
  4. (of climate, weather, their elements; of time periods or areas) dry (characterized by relatively little humidity in the air or soil, by relatively less rainfall)
    sauss laiks, klimatsdry weather, climate
    sauss vējšdry wind
    sausa vasaradry summer
    sauss gadsdry year
    sausa pļavadry meadow
    sausi mežidry forests
    sauss dzīvoklis, pagrabsdry apartment, basement
    Vidusāzijā ir viss vai gandriz viss, izņemot ūdeni; tā ir ļoti, ļoti sausa zeme — Central Asia has everything or almost everything, except water; it is a very, very dry land
    bija atnākusi sausa, svelmaina diena — a dry, scorching day had come
  5. dry (which happens, is carried out without the use of water, of fluids; which does not produce water, fluids)
    sausā spodrināšanadry shine
    sausais putekļu uztvērējs — dry dust collector
    sausais pleirītsdry pleurisy
    sauss klepusdry cough
  6. (of people, their body parts) dry, thin, weak
    atbrauca mazs, sauss vīriņš stipri apnēsātā samta uzvalkā — a little dry (= weak-looking) man arrived in a shabby velvet suit
    vanagu pagalmā ienāca Mālnieka tēvs, garš, sauss vecis — MMālnieks' father came into the hawk yard, a tall, dry (= fragile) old man
  7. (of people, their behavior) dry (without emotionality, without compassion or concern)
    sauss cilvēksdry person
    sauss stilsdry style
    sausa valodadry language
    cilvēki runāja, ka Strautmanis esot sauss un auksts — people say that Strautmanis is dry and cold
  8. (of activities, opinions) dry (without feelings; which causes no feelings)
    Ausma jutās nelaimīga neradošajā, sausajā bibliotēkas darbā — Ausma felt unhappy in (= with) (the) non-creative, dry library work
    statistika ir nepielūdzama: šķietami sausie skaitļi allaž parāda, kas paveikts un kur vēl spēcīgāk pieliekams plecs — statistics is relentless: the seemingly dry figures always show what (was) done and where shoulders must be bent even more strongly (= where one must work harder)
  9. (of sounds) dry, toneless, hollow]
    Paipa iesmējās sīku, sausu smiekliņu — Paipa laughed a little dry laugh

Declension[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ranko Matasović - Toward a relative chronology of the earliest Baltic and Slavic sound changes, University of Zagreb, 2005
  2. ^ “sauss” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.