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From Proto-Indo-European *h₃rdʰwo- ‎(high, upright). Cognates include Ancient Greek ὀρθός ‎(orthós) and Latin arduus. Morphologically formed from verbal root वर्धति ‎(√vṛdh, to grow, elevate).


ऊर्ध्व ‎(ūrdhvá)

  1. rising or tending upwards, raised, elevated, erected, erect, upright, high, above
    • RV 1.36.13
      ऊर्ध्व ऊ षु ण ऊतये तिष्ठा देवो न सविता |
      ऊर्ध्वोवाजस्य सनिता यदञ्जिभिर्वाघद्भिर्विह्वयामहे ||
      ūrdhva ū ṣu ṇa ūtaye tiṣṭhā devo na savitā |
      ūrdhvovājasya sanitā yadañjibhirvāghadbhirvihvayāmahe ||
      Stand up erect to lend us aid, stand up like Savitar the God:
      Erect as strength-bestower we call aloud, with unguents and with priests, on thee.


Usage notes[edit]

In Classical Sanskrit occurring chiefly in compounds.


ऊर्ध्व ‎(ūrdhván

  1. height, elevation
  2. anything placed above or higher (+ ablative)
    ऊर्ध्वं ‎(ūrdhvaṃ)-गच्छति ‎(√gam) — to go upwards or into heaven, die



ऊर्ध्व ‎(ūrdhvá)

  1. in the sequel, in the later part (e.g. of a book or manuscript; because in Sanskrit manuscripts the later leaves stand above), subsequent, after (with ablative)
    अत ऊर्ध्वम् ‎(ata ūrdhvam), or इत ऊर्ध्वम् ‎(ita ūrdhvam) — hence forward, from that time forward, after that passage, hereafter
    ऊर्ध्वं संवत्सरात् ‎(ūrdhvaṃ saṃvatsarāt) — after a year
    ऊर्ध्वं देहात् ‎(ūrdhvaṃ dehāt), — after life, after death
  2. after, after the death of (+ ablative)
    ऊर्ध्वं पितुः ‎(ūrdhvaṃ pituḥ) — after the father's death
  3. in a high tone, aloud