ἄρσην

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *wr̥s-, *wers- ‎(male). Cognates include Sanskrit ऋबभ ‎(ṛbabha), वृषन् ‎(vṛṣan), वृष ‎(vṛṣa), Latin verrēs, and Old Persian [script needed] ‎(aršan). Compare also Old Armenian առն ‎(aṙn).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Adjective[edit]

ᾰ̓́ρσην ‎(ársēnm, ᾰ̓́ρσην f, ᾰ̓́ρσεν n; third declension

  1. male
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 8.7
      μήτέ τις οὖν θήλεια θεὸς τό γε μήτέ τις ἄρσην πειράτω διακέρσαι ἐμὸν ἔπος
      Let no god, neither female nor male, essay to thwart my word.
  2. masculine, manly, strong
    • 408 BCE, Euripides, Orestes 1204
      ὦ τὰς φρένας μὲν ἄρσενας κεκτημένη, τὸ σῶμα δ᾽ ἐν γυναιξὶ θηλείαις πρέπον
      O you that have a masculine spirit, though your body shows you to be a woman!
  3. (of plants) coarse, tough
    • 497 BCE – 405 BCE, Sophocles, Women of Trachis 1196
      πολλὴν μὲν ὕλην τῆς βαθυρρίζου δρυὸς κείραντα, πολλὸν δ᾽ ἄρσεν᾽ ἐκτεμόνθ᾽ ὁμοῦ ἄγριον ἔλαιον
      There hew the wood of deeply-rooted oaks and slash the trunks of wild tough olive trees.
  4. (grammar) masculine
    • 423 BCE, Aristophanes, The Clouds 682
      ἔτι δή γε περὶ τῶν ὀνομάτων μαθεῖν σε δεῖ, ἅττ᾽ ἄρρεν᾽ ἐστίν, ἅττα δ᾽ αὐτῶν θήλεα
      You must learn one thing more about names, what are masculine and what of them are feminine.

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