김치

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Korean[edit]

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김치 (gimchi)

Etymology[edit]

Nativisation of the Sino-Korean term 침채 (沈菜, chimchae, “soaked vegetables”). First attested in the Hunmong jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527, as Middle Korean 딤ᄎᆡ (Yale: timchoy).

In most dialects, Middle Korean 딤ᄎᆡ (Yale: timchoy) was regularly palatalized to 짐츼 (jimchui), whence modern southern dialectal 짐치 (jimchi). However, southern Korean dialects also palatalized /ki/ to /t͡ɕi/, which the Seoul prestige dialect did not. Seoul speakers hence hypercorrected 짐츼 (jimchui) to 김츼 (gimchui) to avoid sounding "southern", whence modern Standard 김치 (gimchi).

This word displaced the older Middle Korean term 디히〮 (Yale: tìhí) (whence (ji), now only used in compound words and the southwestern Jeolla dialect), probably because regular sound change rendered it monosyllabic and caused it to have a large number of homophones.

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?gimchi
Revised Romanization (translit.)?gimchi
McCune–Reischauer?kimch'i
Yale Romanization?kimchi
  • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: 치의 / 치에 / 치까지

    Syllables in red take high pitch. This word always takes high pitch only on the first syllable, and lowers the pitch of subsequent suffixes.

Noun[edit]

김치 (gimchi)

  1. kimchi, a dish made with fermented, seasoned vegetables
    한민족 수천 김치 으로 살아 왔다.
    Hanminjog-eun sucheonnyeon gan gimchi him-euro sara watda.
    For thousands of years, the Korean nation has taken its strength from eating kimchi.

Synonyms[edit]

Historical and regional synonyms of 김치 (gimchi, kimchi)
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GroupRegionLocationWords
Standardised formsSouth Korean Standard Language김치 (gimchi)
North Korean Cultured Language김치 (gimchi)
Historical formsMiddle Korean디히 (tihi) (more common), 딤ᄎᆡ (timchoy) (from Chinese)
Early Modern Seoul Korean딤ᄎᆡ (dimchae), 짐ᄎᆡ (jimchae), 김츼 (gimchui) (from late 18th c.)
Central KoreanGyeonggiModern colloquial Seoul김치 (gimchi)
Traditional Seoul김치 (gimchi)
Incheon김치 (gimchi)
Suwon짐치 (jimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Yeoncheon김치 (gimchi)
Paju김치 (gimchi)
Pocheon김치 (gimchi), 짐치 (jimchi)
Yangju김치 (gimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Gapyeong짐치 (jimchi)
Gwangju김치 (gimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Yangpyeong김치 (gimchi)
Yongin김치 (gimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Icheon김치 (gimchi)
Pyeongtaek김치 (gimchi)
Anseong김치 (gimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
YeongseoChuncheon짠지 (jjanji)
Wonju김치 (gimchi), 짐치 (jimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Cheorwon김치 (gimchi), 짐치 (jimchi)
Inje짐치 (jimchi)
Hongcheon김치 (gimchi), 짐치 (jimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Hoengseong김치 (gimchi), 짐치 (jimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
YeongdongGangneung짐치 (jímchì), 김치 (gímchì), 짠지 (jjánjì)
Wonsan짐치 (jimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Kumya짐치 (jimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Munchon짐치 (jimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Tongchon짐치 (jimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Kosong짐치 (jimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Sokcho짐치 (jimchi)
Samcheok짐치 (jímchì), 짠지 (jjánjì)
Pyeongchang짐치 (jimchi), 김치 (gimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Yeongwol짠지 (jjánjì)
Jeongseon짠지 (jjanji)
North ChungcheongCheongju짐치 (jimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Jincheon짐치 (jimchi)
Chungju짐치 (jimchi), 김치 (gimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Jecheon짐치 (jimchi), 김치 (gimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Danyang짐치 (jimchi), 김치 (gimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Goesan짐치 (jimchi), 김치 (gimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Jeungpyeong김치 (gimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Boeun짐치 (jimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Yeongdong짐치 (jimchi)
South ChungcheongTaean짐치 (jimchi), 김치 (gimchi)
Dangjin짐치 (jimchi), 김치 (gimchi)
Asan짐치 (jimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Cheonan짐치 (jimchi), 김치 (gimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Yesan짐치 (jimchi), 김치 (gimchi)
Hongseong짐치 (jimchi)
Cheongyang짐치 (jimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Gongju짐치 (jimchi), 김치 (gimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Seocheon짐치 (jimchi)
Nonsan짐치 (jimchi)
Geumsan짐치 (jimchi)
South HwanghaeHaeju김치 (gimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Ongjin김치 (gimchi)
Yonan김치 (gimchi)
Taetan김치 (gimchi)
Ryongyon김치 (gimchi)
Chaeryong김치 (gimchi)
Sinchon짠지 (jjanji)
Anak짠디 (jjandi)
Unnyul김치 (gimchi)
North HwanghaeSariwon김치 (gimchi), 짠지 (jjanji)
Sohung김치 (gimchi)
Kumchon김치 (gimchi)
Singye김치 (gimchi)
Suan김치 (gimchi)
Koksan김치 (gimchi)
Southeastern Korean
(Gyeongsang)
North GyeongsangDaegu짐치 (jímchì) (not spicy), 짠지 (jjánjì) (spicy), (jī́)
Yeongju짐치 (jímchì), 김치 (gímchì)
Uljin짐치 (jímchì)
Yecheon짐치 (jímchì)
Andong짐치 (jímchì), 김치 (gímchì)
Sangju짐치 (jímchì)
Uiseong짐치 (jímchì)
Yeongdeok짐치 (jímchì) (not spicy), 짠지 (jjánjì) (spicy)
Gimcheon짐치 (jímchì)
Gumi짠지 (jjánjì), (jī́)
Gunwi짐치 (jímchì) (not spicy), 짠지 (jjánjì) (spicy)
Pohang짐치 (jímchì) (not spicy), 짠지 (jjánjì) (spicy)
Seongju짐치 (jímchì)
Goryeong짐치 (jímchì)
Gyeongju짐치 (jímchì) (not spicy), 짠지 (jjánjì) (spicy)
South GyeongsangBusan짐치 (jímchì)
Ulsan짐치 (jímchì)
Changwon짐치 (jímchì), ()
Geochang짐치 (jímchì), ()
Hapcheon짐치 (jímchì)
Changnyeong짐치 (jímchì)
Miryang짐치 (jímchì)
Hamyang짐치 (jímchì)
Uiryeong짐치 (jímchì)
Hadong짐치 (jímchì)
Jinju짐치 (jímchì)
Gimhae짐치 (jímchì)
Yangsan짐치 (jímchì)
Sacheon짐치 (jímchì)
Goseong짐치 (jímchì)
Namhae짐치 (jímchì)
Geoje짐치 (jímchì)
Southwestern Korean
(Jeolla)
North JeollaJeonju (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Gunsan (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Iksan (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Jinan (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Muju짐치 (jimchi)
Gimje (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Buan ()
Jeongeup (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Imsil짐치 (jimchi)
Jangsu (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Gochang짐치 (jimchi)
Sunchang (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Namwon (), 짐치 (jimchi)
South JeollaGwangju (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Jangseong (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Damyang (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Gokseong (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Gurye ()
Hampyeong짐치 (jimchi)
Muan (), 짐치 (jimchi), 짐차 (jimcha)
Naju (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Suncheon (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Gwangyang짐채 (jimchae)
Yeongam (), 짐치 (jimchi), 짐채 (jimche)
Jindo짐치 (jimchi)
Haenam짐치 (jimchi)
Gangjin (), 짐치 (jimchi), 짐채 (jimche)
Wando짐치 (jimchi)
Jangheung (), 짐치 (jimchi)
Boseong짐치 (jimchi)
Goheung짐치 (jimchi)
Yeosu (), 짐치 ( jimchi), 짐차 (jimcha)
Northwestern Korean
(Pyongan)
North PyonganSinuiju짠디 (jjandi)
Uiju짠디 (jjandi), 딤치 (dimchi)
Cholsan짠디 (jjandi), 짠지 (jjanji), 김치 (gimchi)
Ryongchon짠디 (jjandi)
DiasporaShenyang짠디 (jjandi)
Fushun짠디 (jjandi)
Northeastern Korean
(Hamgyong)
South HamgyongHamhung짐치 (jìmchí), 짠지 (jjánjì)
Chongpyong짐치 (jìmchí), 짠지 (jjánjì)
Yonggwang짐치 (jìmchí), 짠지 (jjánjì)
Sinhung짐치 (jìmchí), 짠지 (jjánjì)
Hongwon짐치 (jìmchí), 짠지 (jjánjì)
Sinpo짐치 (jìmchí), 짠지 (jjánjì)
Riwon짐치 (jìmchí), 짠지 (jjánjì)
North HamgyongChongjin김치 (gìmchí)
Myongchon김치 (gìmchí)
Kyongsong김치 (gìmchí)
Puryong김치 (gìmchí)
Hyesan짠지 (jjánjì)
Kapsan짠지 (jjánjì)
Kimhyonggwon짠지 (jjánjì)
Yukjin KoreanYukjinHoeryong김치 (gìmchí)
DiasporaHunchun김치 (gìmchí)
JejuJeju City짐끼 (jimkki), 짐치 (jimchi), 김치 (gimchi)
Daejeong짐끼 (jimkki), 짐치 (jimchi)
Gujwa짐끼 (jimkki), 짐치 (jimchi), 징뀌 (jingkkwi)
Seogwipo짐끼 (jimkki), 짐치 (jimchi)
This table is an amalgamation of surveys of speakers mostly born before 1950 and may not reflect the language of younger speakers, which has lexically converged towards the standard Seoul dialect in both North and South Koreas.

Descendants[edit]

Interjection[edit]

김치 (gimchi)

  1. cheese (said while being photographed)