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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative forms[edit]


Connected with Old Armenian հաստ (hast, firm, steady, standing still, tough; thick, dense, broad), possibly also Sanskrit पस्त्य n (pastyá, stall, stable ← stable habitation), पस्त्या f (pastyā́, homestead, dwelling, household), and usually derived from Proto-Indo-European *pastV- (solid, stable). Kroonen separates the Sanskrit and reconstructs the Proto-Indo-European root for Armenian and Germanic as *pHst-, according to him from earlier *ph₂ǵ-sth₂-, a compound of *peh₂ǵ- (to become firm) (compare Ancient Greek πήγνυμι (pḗgnumi, to fasten, fix, make solid)) and *steh₂- (to stand).

However, according to Martirosyan “we are hardly dealing with a Proto-Indo-European word,” rather a substrate word shared by Armenian, Germanic, and possibly also Indo-Aryan. See հաստ (hast) for more on this.




  1. fixed, firm, secure


Derived terms[edit]



  • Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997) Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 204b
  • Martirosyan, Hrach (2010), “hast”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 390
  • Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*fastu-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 138