Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/médʰu

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Possibly related to Proto-Semitic *mataḳ- (sweet)[1], if not itself borrowed from Hittite (compare Luwian [Term?] (/mitgaimi-/, sweet(ened)))[2].

Noun[edit]

*médʰu n[3][1][4][5][6]

  1. honey
    Synonyms: *kn̥h₂ónks, *mélit
  2. honey wine, mead

Inflection[edit]

Athematic, proterokinetic
singular
nominative *médʰu
genitive *m̥dʰéws
singular dual plural
nominative *médʰu *médʰwih₁ *médʰuh₂
vocative *médʰu *médʰwih₁ *médʰuh₂
accusative *médʰu *médʰwih₁ *médʰuh₂
genitive *m̥dʰéws *? *m̥dʰéwoHom
ablative *m̥dʰéws *? *m̥dʰúmos
dative *m̥dʰéwey *? *m̥dʰúmos
locative *m̥dʰéw, *m̥dʰéwi *? *m̥dʰúsu
instrumental *m̥dʰúh₁ *? *m̥dʰúbʰi

Derived terms[edit]

  • >? *medʰu-h₁éd-[7][8]
  • >? *mḗdʰu-[9] or *módʰu-[10] (or borrowed from Sogdian 𐼺𐼴𐼹(mwδ /muδ/)[9])
    • Tocharian: [Term?]
      • Tocharian B: mot (alcohol)

Descendants[edit]

  • Anatolian: *médu
    • Luwian: (wine)
      Cuneiform: [script needed] (ma-ad-du /máddu/)
      Anatolian Hieroglyphs: [Anatolian Hieroglyphs needed] (ma-tú-sà), [Anatolian Hieroglyphs needed] (ma-tu-sà /máddu-sa/)
  • >? Armenian: *melu̍β̞i[11] (< instr.pl. *medʰubʰi)
  • Balto-Slavic: *medú (see there for further descendants)
  • Celtic: *medu (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *meduz (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic: *métʰu (see there for further descendants)
  • Indo-Iranian: *mádʰu (see there for further descendants)
  • Tocharian: *ḿətə[15]
    • Tocharian B: mīt
    • Late Old Chinese: (mit)[16] (see there for further descendants)
      • Korean: (mil)
      • Japanese: (mitsu)
    • ? Turkic: *mïr[12]
    • Uralic: *mete[17] (see there for further descendants)
  • Etruscan: 𐌌𐌀𐌈𐌂𐌅𐌀 (maθcva, (honeyed) wine, sweet wine)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 82: “*médhu”
  2. ^ Rabin, Chaim (1963), “Hittite Words in Hebrew”, in Orientalia, volume 32, issue 2, DOI:10.2307/43073741, page 130
  3. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 707
  4. ^ Wodtko, Dagmar S.; Irslinger, Britta; Schneider, Carolin (2008) Nomina im indogermanischen Lexikon [Nouns in the Indo-European Lexicon] (in German), Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, page 467
  5. ^ Klein, Jared S.; Joseph, Brian D.; Fritz, Matthias, editor (2017–2018) Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, pages 2235, 2275
  6. ^ Kapović, Mate (2017), “Proto-Indo-European morphology”, in The Indo-European Languages (Routledge Language Family Series), 2nd edition, London, New York: Routledge, page 71
  7. ^ Langston, Keith (2017–2018), “Chapter XIII: Slavic”, in Klein, Jared S.; Joseph, Brian D.; Fritz, Matthias, editor, Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, § The morphology of Slavic, page 1540
  8. ^ Dunkel, George E. (2014) Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme [Lexicon of Indo-European Particles and Pronominal Stems] (Indogermanische Bibliothek. 2. Reihe: Wörterbücher) (in German), Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter GmbH Heidelberg, →ISBN, page 603
  9. 9.0 9.1 Adams, Douglas Q. (2013), “mot”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 511: “*mēdʰu-”
  10. ^ Hackstein, Olav (2017–2018), “Chapter XII: Tocharian”, in Klein, Jared S.; Joseph, Brian D.; Fritz, Matthias, editor, Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, § The phonology of Tocharian, page 1321
  11. ^ Macak, Martin (2017–2018), “Chapter X: Armenian”, in Klein, Jared S.; Joseph, Brian D.; Fritz, Matthias, editor, Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, § The phonology of Classical Armenian, page 1041
  12. 12.0 12.1 Witzel, Michael (2009), “The linguistic history of some Indian domestic plants”, in Journal of BioSciences, volume 34, issue 6, Indian Academy of Sciences, page 9
  13. ^ Dʹjakonov, I. M.; Starostin, S. A. (2007), “Xurrito-urartskije i vostočnokavkazskije jazyki”, in Starostin, G. S., editor, Trudy po jazykoznaniju [Proceedings in Linguistics]‎[1] (in Russian), Moscow: Jazyki slavjanskix kulʹtur, →ISBN, page 337: “ПВК *mäIdwV ‘вид напитка’”
  14. ^ Starostin, S. A. (2007), “Indo-European glottochronology and homeland”, in Starostin, G. S., editor, Trudy po jazykoznaniju [Proceedings in Linguistics]‎[2] (in Russian), Moscow: Jazyki slavjanskix kulʹtur, →ISBN, page 818: “...or *mHädwV ʽa k. of beverage, liquorʼ”
  15. ^ Ringe, D. A., Jr. (1988–1990), “Evidence for the position of Tocharian in the Indo-European family?”, in Die Sprache, volume 34, Vienna: Universität Wien, page 114
  16. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013) A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN
  17. ^ Joki, Aulis J. (1973) Uralier und Indogermanen [Uralians and Indo-Europeans] (Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Toimituksia; 151) (in German), Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, →ISBN