Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/médʰu

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Possibly related to Proto-Semitic *mataḳ- (sweet)[1], if not itself borrowed from Hittite 𒃻𒆸𒊏𒆯𒆯 (/mitgaimi/)[2].

Noun[edit]

*médʰu n[3][1][4][5][6]

  1. honey
    Synonyms: *kn̥h₂ónks, *mélit
  2. honey wine, mead

Inflection[edit]

Athematic, proterokinetic
singular
nominative *médʰu
genitive *m̥dʰéws
singular dual plural
nominative *médʰu *médʰwih₁ *médʰuh₂
vocative *médʰu *médʰwih₁ *médʰuh₂
accusative *médʰu *médʰwih₁ *médʰuh₂
genitive *m̥dʰéws *? *m̥dʰéwoHom
ablative *m̥dʰéws *? *m̥dʰúmos
dative *m̥dʰéwey *? *m̥dʰúmos
locative *m̥dʰéw, *m̥dʰéwi *? *m̥dʰúsu
instrumental *m̥dʰúh₁ *? *m̥dʰúbʰi

Derived terms[edit]

  • >? *medʰu-h₁éd-[7][8]
  • >? *medʰw-o-s
  • >? *mḗdʰu-[9] or *módʰu-[10] (or borrowed from Sogdian 𐼺𐼴𐼹(mwδ /muδ/)[9])
    • Proto-Tocharian: [Term?]
      • Tocharian B: mot (alcohol)

Descendants[edit]

  • Proto-Anatolian: *médu
  • >? Proto-Armenian: *melu̍β̞i[11] (< instr.pl. *medʰubʰi)
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *médu (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Celtic: *medu (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *meduz (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *métʰu (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *mádʰu (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Iranian: *mádu (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Northeast Caucasian: *mHädwV (type of beverage; liquor)[13]
  • Proto-Tocharian: *ḿətə[14]
    • Tocharian B: mīt
    • Late Old Chinese: (mit)[15] (see there for further descendants)
      • Korean: (mil)
      • Japanese: (mitsu)
      • Vietnamese: mật
    • ? Proto-Turkic: *mïr[12]
    • Proto-Uralic: *mete[16] (see there for further descendants)
  • Etruscan: 𐌌𐌀𐌈𐌂𐌅𐌀 (maθcva, (honeyed) wine, sweet wine)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 82: “*médhu”
  2. 2.0 2.1 Rabin, Chaim (1963) , “Hittite Words in Hebrew”, in Orientalia, volume 32, issue 2, DOI:10.2307/43073741, page 130
  3. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 707
  4. ^ Wodtko, Dagmar S.; Irslinger, Britta; Schneider, Carolin (2008) Nomina im indogermanischen Lexikon [Nouns in the Indo-European Lexicon] (in German), Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, page 467
  5. ^ Klein, Jared S.; Joseph, Brian D.; Fritz, Matthias, editor (2017–2018) Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, pages 2235, 2275
  6. ^ Kapović, Mate (2017) , “Proto-Indo-European morphology”, in The Indo-European Languages (Routledge Language Family Series), 2nd edition, London, New York: Routledge, page 71
  7. ^ Langston, Keith (2017–2018) , “Chapter XIII: Slavic”, in Klein, Jared S.; Joseph, Brian D.; Fritz, Matthias, editor, Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, § The morphology of Slavic, page 1540
  8. ^ Dunkel, George E. (2014) Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme [Lexicon of Indo-European Particles and Pronominal Stems] (Indogermanische Bibliothek. 2. Reihe: Wörterbücher) (in German), Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter GmbH Heidelberg, →ISBN, page 603
  9. 9.0 9.1 Adams, Douglas Q. (2013) , “mot”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 511: “*mēdʰu-”
  10. ^ Hackstein, Olav (2017–2018) , “Chapter XII: Tocharian”, in Klein, Jared S.; Joseph, Brian D.; Fritz, Matthias, editor, Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, § The phonology of Tocharian, page 1321
  11. ^ Macak, Martin (2017–2018) , “Chapter X: Armenian”, in Klein, Jared S.; Joseph, Brian D.; Fritz, Matthias, editor, Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, § The phonology of Classical Armenian, page 1041
  12. 12.0 12.1 Witzel, Michael (2009) , “The linguistic history of some Indian domestic plants”, in Journal of BioSciences, volume 34, issue 6, Indian Academy of Sciences, page 9
  13. ^ Starostin, S. A. (2007) , “Indo-European glottochronology and homeland”, in Starostin, G. S., editor, Trudy po jazykoznaniju [Proceedings in Linguistics]‎[1] (in Russian), Moscow: Jazyki slavjanskix kulʹtur, →ISBN, page 818: “...or *mHädwV ʽa k. of beverage, liquorʼ”
  14. ^ Ringe, D. A., Jr. (1988–1990) , “Evidence for the position of Tocharian in the Indo-European family?”, in Die Sprache, volume 34, Vienna: Universität Wien, page 114
  15. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013) A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN
  16. ^ Joki, Aulis J. (1973) Uralier und Indogermanen [Uralians and Indo-Europeans] (Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Toimituksia; 151) (in German), Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, →ISBN