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This Proto-Turkic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]

  • *kāz


Considering the bird’s black feathers, it could be a derivative of the word 'black' (see kara), but most data support the onomatopoetic formation origin.[1][2][3] Probably related to the Hungarian onomatopoetic word gá-gá ("sound of goose").[3] This onomatopoeic formation may serve in the same function for other Turkic bird-related words like karga (crow, black bird) and kuş (bird), compare the Hungarian onomatopoetic word kár-kár ("to croak").[3]

Alternatively, borrowed from some reflex of Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰh₂éns (goose), perhaps Tocharian.[4][5] Pedersen derived from Old Armenian *գաս (*gas), the supposed earlier form of սագ (sag, goose),[6][7] but this derivation is implausible.[2][5] Unlikely to be a direct borrowing from Proto-Indo-European, probably Nostratic or coincidental or a cultural Wanderwort.[8]

The word may be reconstructible at the Proto-Altaic level as *gā̀ŕV- (wild goose).[9] Compare Evenki га̄рэ (gārə, owl, swan). See also Japanese かり (kari, wild goose), though not claimed to be from the same hypothetical Proto-Altaic source, according to Starostin if it was to be a cognate one would rather expect kàtí in Japanese.[10] Nostraticists further connect the root to Proto-Germanic *kranô (crane) and Proto-Uralic *kurke (crane) (cf. Finnish kurki). Other lookalikes include Proto-Turkic *k(i)ar- (crane, swallow), Proto-Mongolic *kar- (grey crane, swallow) (Mongolian хараацай (haraatsaj, swallow)), Proto-Tungusic *kara- (Manchu [script needed] (qaraki, wild goose, geese)), Proto-Uralic *kärtV (wild duck) (Komi-Zyrian горда (gorda, Eurasian teal)) and Proto-Uralic *korkV (wild duck, gull) (Tundra Nenets [script needed] (χūŕūχo, black seagull)).



  1. goose


  • Medieval
    • Karakhanid: قازْ (qāz, goose, geese (swans, ducks, swallows))
    • Old Turkic
      • Old Uyghur: q՚z (qaz, geese)
    • Kipchak:
  • Oghuz
  • Kipchak
  • Karluk:
  • Siberian
    • North Siberian
    • South Siberian
      • Western Yugur: [script needed] (qaz)
      • Sayan Turkic
      • Yenisei Turkic
      • Altai Turkic
  • Oghur:



  • Budagov, Lazarʹ (1871) Sravnitelʹnyj slovarʹ turecko-tatarskix narěčij [Comparative Dictionary of Turko-Tatar Dialects] (in Russian), volume II, Saint Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences, page 13
  • Radloff, Friedrich Wilhelm (1899) Versuch eines Wörterbuches der Türk-Dialecte (in German and Russian), volume II, Saint Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences, columns 360f, 346 [3] [4]
  • Abajev, V. I. (1973), “qaz”, in Istoriko-etimologičeskij slovarʹ osetinskovo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Ossetian Language] (in Russian), volume II, Moscow, Leningrad: USSR Academy of Sciences, page 272
  1. ^ Levitskaja, L. S.; Dybo, A. V.; Rassadin, V. I. (1997) Etimologičeskij slovarʹ tjurkskix jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of Turkic Languages]‎[1] (in Russian), volume V, Moscow: Jazyki russkoj kulʹtury, page 184b
  2. 2.0 2.1 Doerfer, Gerhard (1967) Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen [Turkic and Mongolian Elements in New Persian] (Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur: Veröffentlichungen der Orientalischen Kommission; 20) (in German), volume III, Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, § 1389, pages 385–387
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Czeglédi, Katalin. The Nature of the Relationship between the Hungarian and Turkish Languages. Journal of Eurasian Studies. Volume IV., Issue 4. October-December 2012.
  4. ^ Clauson, Gerard (1972) An Etymological Dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 679
  5. 5.0 5.1 Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1979), “սագ”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian), volume IV, 2nd edition, Yerevan: University Press, page 152b
  6. ^ Pedersen, Holger (1906), “Armenisch und die Nachbarsprachen”, in Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der Indogermanischen Sprachen[2] (in German), volume 39, issue 3, pages 453–454
  7. ^ Pedersen (Pedersən), Holger (1907) Hayerēn ew dracʿi lezunerə [Armenian and the Neighbouring Languages] (in Armenian), translated into Armenian by H. Tʿovmas Ketikean, Vienna: Mxitʿarēan Tparan, pages 186–187
  8. ^ The Proto-Bulgaro-Turkic Urheimat based on geolexical analysis (archieved)
  9. ^ Starostin, Sergei; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg (2003), “*gā̀ŕV”, in Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.8), Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill
  10. ^ Starostin, Sergei; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg (2003), “*gi̯ằlá”, in Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.8), Leiden, New York, Köln: E.J. Brill