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Old Irish[edit]


From Proto-Celtic *aleti, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂életi. Cognate with Middle Welsh alu (bear young), Latin alō (I feed, nourish), Old English alan (to nourish).

The future stem has eb- extracted from reduplicated futures like ebarthi (will bestow it) (from Proto-Celtic *ɸiɸrāti) and ·ebla¹ (will drive) (from Proto-Celtic *ɸiɸlāti) and reinterpreted as a future marker.[1]



ailid (conjunct ·ail, verbal noun altram)

  1. to nourish
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 5b28
      is inse ṅduit; ní tú nod·n-ail, acht is hé not·ail.
      it is impossible for you sg; it is not you that nourishes it, but it that nourishes you
  2. to rear, foster



  • Irish: oil


Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
ailid unchanged n-ailid
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.


  1. ^ Thurneysen, Grammar of Old Irish, § 649

Further reading[edit]