ail

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See also: áil, àil, Äil, -ail, and -áil

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English eyle, eile, from Old English eġle (hideous, loathsome, hateful, horrid, troublesome, grievous, painful), from Proto-Germanic *agluz (cumbersome, tedious, burdensome, tiresome), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂egʰlo-, *h₂egʰ- (offensive, disgusting, repulsive, hateful). Cognate with Gothic 𐌰𐌲𐌻𐌿𐍃 (aglus, hard, difficult).

Adjective[edit]

ail (comparative ailer or more ail, superlative ailest or most ail)

  1. (obsolete) Painful; troublesome.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English eilen, from Old English eġlan, eġlian (to trouble, afflict), cognate with Gothic 𐌰𐌲𐌻𐌾𐌰𐌽 (agljan, to distress).

Verb[edit]

ail (third-person singular simple present ails, present participle ailing, simple past and past participle ailed)

  1. (transitive) To cause to suffer; to trouble, afflict. (Now chiefly in interrogative or indefinite constructions.)
    Have some chicken soup. It's good for what ails you.
    • Bible, Genesis xxi. 17
      What aileth thee, Hagar?
    • 2011, "Connubial bliss in America", The Economist:
      Not content with having in 1996 put a Defence of Marriage Act (DOMA) on the statue book, Congress has now begun to hold hearings on a Respect for Marriage Act. Defended, respected: what could possibly ail marriage in America?
  2. (intransitive) To be ill; to suffer; to be troubled.
    • Richardson
      When he ails ever so little [] he is so peevish.
Quotations[edit]
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

ail (plural ails)

  1. An ailment; trouble; illness.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle English eile, eyle, eiȝle, from Old English eġl (an ail; awn; beard of barley; mote), from Proto-Germanic *agilō (awn). Cognate with German Achel, Egel, Ägel.

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

ail (plural ails)

  1. The awn of barley or other types of corn.

Anagrams[edit]


Dalmatian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin allium.

Noun[edit]

ail

  1. garlic

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French, from Latin allium.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ail m (plural ails or aulx)

  1. garlic

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish ail (boulder, rock), from Proto-Celtic *ɸales-, from Proto-Indo-European *pelis-, *pels- (stone).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ail f (genitive singular aileach, nominative plural aileacha)

  1. stone, rock

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

  • aill (cliff, precipice)
  • ailt (side of a glen)

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
ail n-ail hail not applicable
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*fales-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-17336-1, page 120

Norman[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French, from Latin allium.

Noun[edit]

ail m (uncountable)

  1. (Jersey) garlic

Old Irish[edit]

Verb[edit]

·ail

  1. third-person singular present indicative conjunct of ailid

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
·ail unchanged ·n-ail
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Welsh[edit]

Welsh ordinal numbers
 <  1af 2il 3ydd  > 
    Cardinal : dau
    Ordinal : ail
    Adverbial : dwywaith
    Multiplier : dwbl

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *ėl, from Proto-Celtic *alyos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂élyos (other).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

ail (feminine singular ail, plural ail, not comparable)

  1. second (ordinal number) - ail lawr (second floor). Causes soft mutation.

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
ail unchanged unchanged hail
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.